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John the Baptist's execution, reasons given for, 40

Messianic pretenders described by, 25 priestly caste, membership in, 48, 50

social and economic history of Galilee, 40 social or ecclesial community ofJesus and his followers as viewed by, i46 Juba I, 383 Juba II, 383, 384 Jubianus (Bishop), 480 Judah Hanasi (Rabbi), 58 'Judaising'. See Jewish Christianity Jude canonicity of, 2i2, 2i3 grand-nephews ofJesus via, 299 Jewish apocalyptic echoed in, 96 Judaea, 37. See also Palestine early history of, 38-9, i36 geography of, 37, i30 Herodian Period, 39-40, i35 Johannine Christianity's origins in, i30 map, ist century ce, 36 Roman empire, as part of, 76-7 social and economic history, 48-5i Judge, E. A., 350

judicial bodies, councils functioning as, 428-33 Julia Severa, 63

Julian ('the Apostate'), emperor, 4i5 Julius Africanus, 339, 5i2 Julius, bishop of Rome, 566 Julius Caesar

Galilean tribute to Rome, reduction of,46 on Gaul, 367, 368 imperium initiated by, 69 patronage ofJewish communities, 66 justification by faith and Pauline mission to

Gentiles, iii, ii3, ii9 Justin Martyr, xv abandonment of children condemned by, 282

on antiquity of Christianity, 224 Atticus, possible borrowing from, 236 baptism, i60 on celibacy, 276

Celsus possibly writing in direct response to, 237, 238, 239 divorce due to disparity ofbelief, 280 eucharist and mysteries of Mithras, i4 greater antiquity of'barbarian' cultures, context of,230-3 on Hadrian's rescript, 508 heresy invented by, 253-4 historical Jesus, importance of, 33 inventor ofhistory regarded as, 243-4 Irenaeus contrasted and compared, 263, 373 Jewish Christianity evidenced by, 98, 99, i0i, 224

Justin Martyr (cont.)

Jews and Jewish scholarship, intellectual engagement with, 226, 227 Johannine and Pauline writings having little impact on, 264 logos theology of,454, 455, 456 on Marcion, i95

on monotheism and creation, 443-4 Nicene Creed's 'light from light' in, 562 Numenius ofApamea as source for, 237 on Plato's derivation from Moses, 23i, 233-5 philosophy in antique or 'barbarian'

cultures, historical origins according to,

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