bishops Cornelius and Dionysius, preserved in Eusebius or Athanasius; also works by those later regarded as heretics, including possibly Valentinus, The Gospel of truth,4 Ptolemy's Letter to Flora, and fragments of Marcion's Antitheses (preserved in Tertullian's refutation); Christian sources mentioning Rome, such as the book of Acts, 2 Timothy, and 1 Peter in the New Testament; and the works of Irenaeus, Tertullian and Eusebius;

Non-Christian authors who make incidental, but vitally important references to Christians at Rome, e.g. Suetonius' apparent confirmation of Claudius' edict against the Jews (cf. Acts 18:3), with the puzzling statement that they made 'disturbances in the name of Chrestus' ['Christ'?] (Suet. Claud. 25.4), and the accounts of persecution of Christians by Nero as scapegoats for a terrible fire (Tac. Ann. 15.44, mentioning the death of Jesus under Pontius Pilate) or for purveying 'a new and wicked superstition' (Suet. Nero 16.2);5 Martyrologies, especially the MartyriumJustini et septem sodalium ('Martyrdom ofJustin and his seven companions');6 Ecclesiastical succession lists, found in Irenaeus (Haer. 3.2-3), the catacomb of

Callistus, and the later Liber pontificalis; Liturgical texts, such as (Pseudo-)Hippolytus, Traditio apostolica (Apostolic Tradition') (probably).7

Material remains,8 which are not always easy to date and raise all kinds of interpretative questions, include:

Archaeological finds, including catacombs and church foundations; much is uncertainly traced back to the pre-Constantinian period,9 but it may be presumed that, though 'pagan' in origin, the cemetery below the Vatican and some of the catacombs, notably what lies under San Sebastiano and those of Domitilla, Callistus and Priscilla, have some claim to be sites of interest for the time before the peace of the church;10

4 See ch. 18, above. This work, found among the Nag Hammadi discoveries, may have been produced in Egypt, and may not be the work ofValentinus.

5 See pt vi, ch. 28, below (including discussion of Dio Cassius, Epitome 67.14, and the possibility that Flavius Clemens and his wife, Domitilla, persecuted under Domitian, were Christians).

6 Musurillo, xvii-xx; 42-61. Additional martyrologies, such as those of Paul and Peter, Ignatius and others, are late.

7 The attribution is still contested, but its Roman origin likely; see Stewart-Sykes, Hippoly-tus.

9 For an attempt to differentiate pre-Constantinian material see Snyder, Ante pacem.

10 Hertling and Kirschbaum, Roman catacombs; Stevenson, Catacombs; and Mancinelli, Catacombs and basilicas as well as Catacombs of Rome.

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