interests of elite males. While an 'enlightened' Stoic philosopher like the firstcentury contemporary of Paul, Musonius Rufus, could argue that women have the same capacity for virtue and intelligence, and should therefore receive the same education, it was only so that they could educate their children (provided it did not compromise their chastity), while for men the same education was for participation in public affairs.5 While Musonius Rufus and a few others like him argued that wives had just as much right to expect chaste fidelity of their husbands as husbands did of their wives, the sexual double standard was much more prevalent.
Within this world, Christians created their marriages. To the extent that household codes like those of Colossians and Ephesians were normative, Christians adapted the fundamental structures of the hierarchical household to their belief. A characteristically Christian twist, though not unknown elsewhere, is the way in which the subordinate figures of wife, children and slaves were addressed as persons in their own right, and addressed first (Col 3:i8-4:i; Eph 5:22-6:9). Another is the transparency of household heads who represent God or Christ both in their reception of the submission of others and in their exercise of authority: wives are to submit to their husbands as to the Lord, but the husband is to love his wife as Christ loved the church (Eph 5:22, 25). Thus the whole familiar patriarchal structure is christologised and absorbed into Christian faith and teaching, albeit with recognition of the fundamental spiritual dignity of each member. At the same time that the authoritative position of husbands is reinforced, in the Ephesians passage, the wife is put forward as model and image of the church.
'Mixed marriages' of believers and unbelievers existed throughout the entire period covered by this volume. They are already attested in i Corinthians 7:i2-i6. These marriages witness to the relative autonomy ofwomen to choose their own way of belief and worship, in contradiction to much of the articulated theory about the well-run marriage. When in the same chapter Paul tells widows that they are free to remarry, he expresses his desire that they marry 'in the Lord', which he would not need to say if that were taken for granted (i Cor 7:39). Some decades later, i Peter 3:i offers as a reason for the reverent submission of wives that they may thus convert unbelieving husbands.
When Tertullian writes two treatises to his wife to discourage the second marriage of the widowed, he gives a long list of troubles that the Christian wife married to a pagan husband will encounter, which constitutes one of our best descriptions not only of daily Christian practice, but also of what life in
5 Frs. 3, 4, in 'Musonius Rufus, "The Roman Socrates"', 39-49.
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