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loss of Pauline influence in Asia (Acts 20:27-31; 1 Cor 16:9; 2 Tim 1:15; 3:1-15; 4:1-18);63 then (c) as anti-Jewish, accordingto the Hellenised and marriage-denying doctrine of Marcion of Sinope,64 in whose truncated 'canon' of scripture Paul predominated;65 (d) as the teacher ofTheodas, mentor to Valentinus,66 according to Gnostic claims, and (e) as the promoter of non-docetic orthodoxy and of celibacy in the Acts of Paul and Thecla including 3 Corinthians. Luke, Paul's associate in the New Testament, figured in the Anti-Marcionite prologue67 to Luke's gospel68 as another celibate, an Antiochene who wrote that gospel in Achaea (cf. too, Euseb. HE 3.4.6; Jerome, Vir. ill. 7), dying later in Bithynia (or Boeotia).

Encratism laid claim to Andrew, who was otherwise linked by traditions to both Achaea (Gregory of Nazianzus andJerome, contrast Origen, so Euseb. HE 3.1) and Asia Minor (cf. John 1:40-4; 6:8; 12:22). In the Acts of Andrew and Mathias in the city of cannibals, Sinope in Pontus was the city concerned. The encratite (third-century?) Acts of Andrew (Euseb. HE 3.25.6) made of him a traveller, who moved from Pontus to Achaea and was imprisoned for teaching asceticism. One form of the text told of his crucifixion in Patras.69

Docetic and encratite elements, plus opposition to Simon Magus ('father' of Christian Gnosticism),70 were combined in the Acts of Peter (possibly known to the author of the Acts of Paul). These, plus its miracle stories and the modal-istic monarchianism71 of popular Christian piety, make its thought hard to summarise.72 Petrine influence had touched Achaea (1 Cor 1:12; 3:22; 9:5), but in Asia Minor it was 1 Peter which represented 'mainstream' Petrine tradition.

63 Millier, Theologiegeschichte; MacDonald, Legend; Lindemann, Paulus.

64 Hoffmann, Marcion (with caution), but also Lieu, Image and reality, 265-70; Schmid, Marcion; Hurtado, LordJesus Christ, 549-58; and items in Wilson etal. (eds.), Anti-Judaism, vol. 11; and May etal. (eds.), Marcion.

66 The details of Gnostic teachers' activities in Asia Minor and Achaea are lost, but see Irenaeus (Haer. 1.13.5) on Marcosian influence in the family of an Asian abroad.

67 This is a modern designation. These prefaces to Mark, Luke and John vary in origin and date and were not directed against Marcion. Only the Prologue to Luke survives in Greek.

68 On Marcion and Luke's gospel, see pt iii, ch. 9, above.

69 Prieur and Schneemelcher, 'The acts of Andrew'; MacDonald, Acts of Andrew; Peterson, Andrew.

70 Iren. Haer. 1.23.2-4; cf.the Epistulaapostolorum, and [Clem.] Recogn. 2.1-3.49; Hom. 2; 3; 7; 16-19.

72 Cf.Perkins, 'Acts of Peter". On 'Petrine' traditions, see Berger, 'Unfehlbare Offenbarung'; and Smith, Petrine controversies. The Gospel of Peter, too, may reflect 'popular'-level Christianity and tastes. See Hurtado, Lord Jesus Christ, 443-7.

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