Eventually this led to conflict with Rome. At the end of the Punic wars (264-146 bce), Rome took control of the city of Carthage, administering it and its dependencies (north-east Tunisia) as a praetorian province which supplied grain to Rome. In 67 bce, the Romans added Cyrene to their African territories. In 46 bce, they annexed Juba i's Mauretania, combining their Africa Vetus with this new territory of Africa Nova into a single proconsular province. Initially, civil war and concern for the protection of Rome's grain supply promoted the consolidation of the two territories. But in 42, the western part was divided into two imperial provinces, Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana. In 25 bce, the eastern part, Caesariensis, was given to Juba ii to rule. Juba, reared in Rome, brought its culture to his ancestral land.10 The western sector, Tingitana, supported one of the heaviest concentrations of Roman troops in the empire. Although few Roman cities were established there, many recruits from the area followed their fathers into the military.11 At the turn of the second century ce the Severans, Africans themselves, came to power. With their knowledge of the local contexts, they split Numidia from Africa Proconsularis. Under Diocletian, Proconsularis and Cyrene were divided into three provinces, Africa, Byzacena and Tripolitana, and Numidia broken into three, Numidia Cirtensis, Sitifensis and Militiana. Tingitana was attached to Hispania.

All these redistributions supported Romanisation and made administration of the ill-defined frontiers more stable as Maures, Baquates, Gaetuli and other tribes pushed northwards.12

Specifically Punic and Graeco-Roman traces such as language and trade goods waned as one moved inland. Romanisation was strongest in coastal areas and in areas where the military was garrisoned early and intensely, e.g. around Cirta and Lambaesis. Not all cities adopted Roman mores, even forms of government. Colonies and cities whichpetitioned for civic status had Roman forms of government, but many larger cities, especially in Tripolitania, retained Punic forms of governance with assemblies, senates and suffetes assisted by seniores.13 The persistence of collegial Punic forms of government depended on the convenience of Roman authorities and the degree of local elite resistance to assimilation. Where cooperation or cooptation benefited Africans, e.g. in Mauretania Caesariensis, Roman cities existed. Where it did not, e.g. in Leptis (Lepcis), dual foundations of Punic cities and Roman colonies grew up side by side.

10 MacMullen, Romanization, 43-5.

11 Shaw, 'Autonomy and tribute', 68-70.

12 On the constant renegotiation of frontier politics, see Shaw, 'Autonomy and tribute'.

13 MacMullen, Romanization, 35-6.

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