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become visible and passible in his Son. The gospel of John is used extensively by both authors to demonstrate this 'economy'.

Hippolytus concludes with a telling peroration about the Word who is at the Father's side and whom the Father sent for the salvation of humanity. The Word is the one proclaimed through the Law and prophets, the one who became the 'new man' from the Virgin and the Holy Spirit, not disowning what was human about himself- hungry, exhausted, weary, thirsty, troubled when at prayer, sleeping on a pillow, sweating in agony and wanting release from suffering, betrayed, flogged, mocked, bowing his head and breathing his last. He took upon himself our infirmities, as Isaiah had said. But he was raised from the dead and is himself the resurrection and the life. He was carolled by angels and gazed on by shepherds, received God's witness, 'This is my beloved Son,' changed water into wine, reproved the sea, raised Lazarus, forgave sins. This is God who became man on our behalf - he to whom the Father subjected all things. To him be glory and power as well as to the Father and the Holy Spirit in the holy church, both now and always and from age to age. Amen.

Clearly the arguments were about articulating the implications of scripture and the liturgical confession of the church.

Origen

Contemporary with these controversies in Rome were the early years of the great scholar and thinker of the Alexandrian church, Origen. He apparently made a journey to Rome in the time of Zephyrinus,33 and so he may have been aware of the controversies raging around at the time. Be that as it may, he developed a complex form of logos theology, which probably owed something to his predecessor in Alexandria, the Jewish philosopher Philo, and which, for good or ill, left a legacy for subsequent theologians of the east.

The interpretation of Origen's ideas is fraught with difficulties for a number of reasons. (1) The majority of his works have not been preserved in the original Greek: the later Origenist controversies34 of the fourth and fifth centuries ensured, in the first place, the translation of a good deal into Latin, though somewhat adulterated by the need to defend his orthodoxy, and in the second, the destruction of his books. (2) The bulk of what he produced was scripture commentaries, where his philosophical ideas are scattered around

34 Clark, Origenist controversy.

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