diakonoi (i Tim 3).108 Yet the fact that Ignatius feels he must lay down mandates for subservience to the bishop, and add his backing to Onesimus at Ephesus by name, suggests that like Paul he was writing into a contested situation. While it is an overstatement to imagine that the structure of Paul's churches was simply charismatic rather than institutional,109 we observe a significant shift in the historical placement of the relevant figures in each generation when comparing Paul's 1 Corinthians 3:i0f and the later Ephesians 2:21. Whereas for Paul there is only one foundation, Jesus Christ crucified, preached by himself as apostle, for the deutero-Pauline author the foundation is one floor up from this fundament: the church is 'built up on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus as the corner stone.' Second Thessalonians demonstrates that Paul's letters have become the source of his authoritative traditions (2:15; cf. 3:14), a move replicated in 1 Timothy 6:20: 'guard the deposit'! And, whereas a completely egalitarian first phase in the Pauline churches seems an overstatement, it is possible to see an increasing formalism in household relations in the later years which, while it may reflect some actual attitudes in Paul's own day,110 was not the only or even prevailing norm, according to the evidence, in which women apparently had significant leadership roles in the movement.111 Moreover, the third Pauline generation also included less hierarchically and household-bound figures, such as those we can glimpse in the apocryphal Acts of Paul and Thecla.112 Hence while the Pauline wing of the Pastorals and Ignatius was to win out, it was not the only Gentile mission in its day. But the older hypothesis is right about the role of compromise in the settlements these documents represent - an overt attempt to read the origins of the Gentile mission as universal rather than eclectic or sectarian. In so doing, the Gentile Christian movement at the dawn of the second century was self-consciously building second and third stories onto the early Pauline housechurches in key urban settings, and ably employing the same missionary tools - letters and delegated authority - for the enactment of an empire-wide movement as had their founder, Paul.

108 1 Tim 3:1-13; Young, Theology, 74-96; full discussion in ch. 7, below.

109 Cf.the 'pecking order' of 1 Cor i2:28f.

111 Balch and Osiek, Families, with further literature; Schussler Fiorenza, In memory of her, 168-204, for discussion of important women on Paul's missionary team.

112 MacDonald, Legend and apostle.

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