identifiable less by their design and layout, in which there was no uniformity, but rather by the presence of a small repertoire of specific symbols appearing as decorative features carved, incised or embedded in mosaic. Alongside the menorah, the most widespread and secure identifying marks of Judaism were symbols associated with the temple cult (shofar, incense shovel, ewer) and with the festival of Tabernacles (palm branches, citrons). A Torah shrine, or occasionally two shrines, can often be located. At Dura Europos, the rich sequence of third-century ce biblical illustrations leaves one in no doubt of the identity of the building's users, even in the absence of surviving parallels.24 By contrast, the Stobi inscription sets out in detail the arrangements for turning over part of the private dwelling of Polycharmus to communal use. Assembly in private houses will have been far from unique.25

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