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Other exegetes have demonstrated points of contact between the eschatolog-ically oriented New Testament works ofJude and Revelation on the one hand and Jewish apocalypticism on the other, and some have taken these agreements as evidence for a Jewish Christian provenance for these New Testament works.30 Revelation in particular, which attacks people who 'say that they are Jews and are not' (2:9, 3:9), may do so in the name of the 'true Jews', i.e. the Jewish Christians.31

Even if some of these suggestions of Jewish Christian provenance are not totally secure, their cumulative effect is impressive: the vast majority of New Testament writers feel the necessity of engaging the issues of Torah observance and/or Jewish identity, and this compulsion probably reflects, among other factors, the strong influence of Jewish Christianity in the New Testament era.

The continuing influence of Jewish Christianity

This influence continued as the first century gave way to the second, and remained an important factor for some time thereafter. In Rome, 1 Clement and The Shepherd ofHermas, which are dated respectively to the end of the first century and the beginning or middle of the second, both have markedly Jewish traits, which are probably in part attributable to the continuing impact ofJewish Christianity in the capital city.32 Jewish Christianity continued to be influential in Rome in the late second and early third century, as is demonstrated by the works of Hippolytus and Novatian and the controversy about the date of Easter.33 Things were similar in the eastern part of the empire; the Didache, a late first- or early second-century text that comes from Syria-Palestine or Egypt, is probably either in part or in full the product of a Jewish Christian community.34 The continued vitality ofJewish Christianity across a wide geographical area in the early to middle second century is also attested by the existence of three Jewish Christian gospels, The gospel of the twelve, The gospel of the Nazaraeans, and The gospel of the Hebrews, which probably originated during this period in Transjordan, Syria and Egypt respectively.35 Although the works themselves have not survived, they are occasionally quoted by the church fathers, usually

30 OnJude, see Wolthuis, 'Jude and Jewish traditions'.

31 Cf.Shepherd, 'Gospel ofJohn', 708 and Frankfurter, 'Jews or not?

32 See Brown and Meier, Antioch andRome, 158-83,211-16 and Lampe, From Paul to Valentinus, 75-6.

33 See Frend, Rise of Christianity, 340-3.

34 See Niederwimmer, The Didache, 1-54 and Draper, 'Torah and troublesome apostles'.

35 See Klijn, Jewish-Christian gospel tradition, 27-43.

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