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Testament epistles9 and the Didache, to distinguish those who teach according to the right traditions and those who do not. In the mid-second century we have the examples of Valentinus, Marcion and Justin, all of whom arrived in Rome from places further east, all of whom were apparently accepted within the Roman church, but two of whom were later excluded when the majority sensed that their teaching was aberrant.10 Justin, however, was accepted, apparently operated as a teacher of the 'barbarian philosophy', wearing the conventional philosopher's dress and taking in pupils such as Tatian. Such a teacher substituted Moses and the biblical writings for the usual classics,11 and developed his ideas through exegesis of texts. The presence of'schools' among the house churches of Rome can be paralleled in Alexandria, where Valentinus and Basilides taught, as well as Pantaenus and Clement, in the years before the most famous of all, Origen.

Clearly the relationship between such semi-independent philosophical teachers and the emerging hierarchy of the church was not always straightforward. Origen found that relations with his bishop became uncomfortable, so occasioning his move from Alexandria to Caesarea. It has been suggested12 that Arius, whose dispute with his bishop divided the church at the end of the period of this volume,13 was behaving as if he could be an independent teacher in this older tradition at a time when social and political developments precluded it - he is described in the sources not only as a presbyter but as a scripture teacher. In the post-Constantinian period, the great teachers of the church would be the bishops - people like Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nazianzus, John Chrysostom, Ambrose and Augustine - while general education would become 'secularised' and remain in the hands of the rhetoricians who taught from the pagan classics.14 In this earlier period, however, we can trace two parallel developments. On the one hand, the church, like the synagogue, had itself a strong resemblance to a school, its gatherings focusing on the reading and interpretation of texts; on the other hand, semi-independent Christian teachers were developing a Christian educational curriculum based on an alternative set of classical texts, namely the Bible.

11 Droge, Homer or Moses?;Young, Biblical Exegesis.

12 Williams, Arius.

14 Fourth-century bishops had received a classical (pagan) education, and Gregory of Nazianzus defended his right to it against the edict ofJulian the Apostate. This bespeaks a different attitude from the second-third centuries, where substitution of the Bible for the classics is evident; see Droge, Homer or Moses?

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