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concerning Easter).98 Statements ofproto-'orthodox' Christian belief, a'canon oftruth' or 'rule offaith' were being formulated against alternative interpreta-tions.99 The first hints of this had appeared in Galatians 2:14; 6:16 (cf. Ign. Eph. 5.2). But these were internal matters. For their part, the governing authorities had never distinguished between catholic, New Prophet, Marcionite, or other Christians. All might have their martyrs (M. Polyc. 10.3; M. Pion. 11; cf. Or. C. Cels. 5.54; Euseb. HE 4.15.46; 5.16.21-2; 7.12).

The battle for incarnational orthodoxy merged into another for Trinitarian orthodoxy. How was Christ to be worshipped as God and Trinitarian doctrine reconciled with God's unity (monarchia, Tert. Prax. 3 and 9)? Christians of Asia Minor were prominent in the fray, and the monarchian controversy marked the beginning of a series of troubling christological and Trinitarian disputes.

In the 190s, Byzantium exported to Rome the adoptionist so-called dynamic monarchianism of Theodotus the cobbler (Hipp. Haer. 7.23). To Rome went the modalistic monarchianism of Noetus of Smyrna (see Hipp. Haer. 9.712; Noet.; Epiph. Pan. 57).100 Tertullian's 'Praxeas' (unidentified 'busybody') also had links with Asia. His modalistic monarchianism (Prax. 10, 27-9) had 'crucified the Father', and, in turning Rome against the New Prophecy, he had 'put to flight' the Paraclete also. In turn, Gregory Thaumaturgus challenged modalism's re-emergence in third-century Sabellianism.101 Indeed, the anti-modalism of many Christians of the east, and their belief in Jesus Christ as the incarnation of the pre-existent and creative logos, was to provide fuel in the later Arian controversy.

Eastern bishops combined in support of Arius, who made Nicomedia his retreat after his excommunication. Eusebius of Nicomedia (d. c.342 ce), politically influential and formerly a fellow student with Arius,102 was significant in support,103 whereas Marcellus of Ancyra (determined upholder of the Nicaean homoousios language) represented one eastern camp's anti-Arian stance.104 Once again, as in the time of the New Prophecy,105 Christians of Ancyra were divided.

98 Synods in Synnada and Iconium (230s and 240s) considered heretics, schismatics and re-baptism (Euseb. HE 7.7.5). Cf.Firmilian's correspondence with Cyprian in Carthage (Cypr. Ep. 75).

99 Euseb. HE 4.23.4; cf.Iren. Haer. 1.9.4; Euseb. D.E. 3 and 6 on the rule of faith.

101 Euseb. HE7.6; 7.26; Hipp. Ha^r. 9.6; Bas. Ep. 210.

104 Logan, 'Marcellus of Ancyra'; Kannengieser, 'Current theology'; Seibt, Theologie.

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