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obstinately refused to heed as they raced headlong, unrepentant, to their judgement.

The second crucial event was Hadrian's suppression of the revolt of Bar Kochba in 132-5CE, and rededication ofJerusalem as Aelia Capitolina, withJews forbidden, not only to live there, but even to gaze upon it from a distance. When Eusebius attempts, as he does for each major location, a regular succession of Christian bishops in Jerusalem, he remarks that he had had difficulty learning details of the bishops (most ofwhom were short-lived) before 135, but had been able to document fifteen of them from written records. He emphasises that Hadrian's conquest of the city marked a shift in the community and leadership there, from those who were 'Hebrews in ancestry', with their 'bishops from the circumcision' (HE 4.5.3-4), to a 'church from the Gentiles', with the first bishop, Marcus, appointed (HE 4.6.4). At this point Jerusalem officially, for Eusebius, becomes, like the entire rest of the world, a part of the Gentile mission. He appears at pains to paint the history of Jewish Christianity as past and gone from that point forward.16 Now Jerusalem is like any other city in the Mediterranean, a site of official 'pagan' worship (including the temple to Venus marking the spot where Constantine will later build a church in honour of the burial place of Jesus).

But the isolation and rededication ofJerusalem did not mean the complete eradication of either Christians or Jews from Palestine.17 Many Jews moved to coastal cities, like Caesarea or Javneh, as also to Galilean cities, such as Sepphoris and Tiberias. Eusebius preserves an intriguing tradition of men reputed to have been the grand-nephews of Jesus (through his brother Judas) who were dragged out of Galilee and brought before the emperor Domitian (died 96 ce) on suspicion of their intent to politically enfranchise their ancestral house of David. Eusebius paints them in the hues of the martyrs of his own day by saying how, though they were rough farmers who easily persuaded Caesar of their innocuousness by showing him the roughness of their hands, their judicial ordeal (and blood connection to Jesus) led to their 'becoming leaders of the churches' (Euseb. HE 3.20.6). Eusebius' own De martyribus Palestinae ('The martyrs of Palestine'), an independent work also appended to some versions of his Historia ecclesiastica (bk viii),18 gives his eyewitness testimony to Christian deaths in Palestine, Phoenicia, Egypt, Syria and Asia

16 It may be noted here that the archaeological record is disputed as to whether there is evidence of Christians, or Jewish Christians in particular, in Palestine in the second and third centuries (see Taylor, Christians and the holy places).

17 Evidence collected in Mullen, Expansion of Christianity, 21-33.

18 The full text has been preserved in Syriac.

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