to the emperor Aurelian, who decided that the building belonged to those who would receive a letter from the bishops of Italy and Rome. Eusebius is scathing about the fact that Paul was thrown out by the secular authority, but in these events we can discern precedents for the ecumenical councils of Eusebius' own day, as well as the involvement of the emperor in the church's affairs.44

In later sources, Greek and Syriac, Paul's teaching is consistently associated with the formula 'Christ was only a man.'45 Yet extant fragments from the dispute46 show that this is an over-simplification. Ranged against Paul were the followers of Origen. Dionysius of Alexandria undoubtedly stood in the same tradition. Against this, Paul insisted that Father and Son are numerically identical. God is a solitary monad, whose Word remains within the divine self until it is uttered. Indeed, he would not accept that the Word, even when uttered, became a distinct hypostasis or person, and possibly used the term homoousios to convey this, though the sources are not entirely clear on this.47 According to Epiphanius' report of Paul's teaching,48 the Son of God is not a subsistent entity, but is in God himself, as indeed Sabellius, Noetus and others taught as well - though Paul's doctrine is different from theirs, he adds. For while the Father and the Son are one God, the human being below is a distinct person; Jesus was a human being, and the Word from above inspired him. One fragment runs as follows: 'The logos was greater than Christ; for Christ became great through wisdom. The logos is from above; Jesus Christ is a man from here. Mary... bore a man like us, but greater in all respects since he was from the Holy Spirit.' It would appear, then, that Jesus was a man inspired by the wisdom or logos of God; and the logos of God is none other than the one God, the solitary Monad. So Paul probably evidenced some characteristics of both monarchian doctrines.49

Thus controversy drove the impulse to move from the rhetoric of devotion and confession to that of definition and doctrine. This tendency to try to shape a theological discourse of precision made the church a different kind of social organisation from most religious associations ofthe ancient world. Cultic practices did not normally carry 'teachings', the denial of which meant exclusion.

45 Wallace-Hadrill, Christian Antioch; pp. 7if have a useful collection of quotations.

46 De Riedmatten, Les actes, collected the fragments.

47 The sources differ as to the use of homoousios: Hilary Epistula de synodis 81 is probably to be preferred over Ath. Syn. 45. So Lampe in Cunliffe-Jones and Drewery History of Christian doctrine, 88.

49 So Bardy, Paul de Samosate and De Riedmatten, Les actes, against Loofs, 'Paul von Samosata'.

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