activity sharedbyJews, pagans and Christians alike. Rather, 'commonJudaism', as defined by E. P. Sanders, bound Palestine and diaspora together.22 Until 70 ce, the expected allegiance to the temple and to Jerusalem was signalled by the two-drachma (half-shekel) temple tax, whose collection and shipment was permitted by the Romans, and also through pilgrimage, an act of piety which we happen to know Philo performed once in his life (Prov. fr. 2.64). The temple founded by the dissident Oniad high priests at Leontopolis in lower Egypt during the second century bce had only a local importance, and it was presumably by way of intimidation and to eliminate any possible focus for the remnants of resistance that Vespasian had it closed in 73 ce, after the complete defeat of the revolt in Judaea (Josephus, BJ 7.433-5).

There are weak reflections in the diaspora of the striking religious diversity found in Second Temple Palestine. Philo talks in De vita contemplativa of the therapeutai of Lake Mareotis who led an ascetic communitarian existence comparable to that of the Essenes. The diaspora Jewish family of Saul of Tarsus might be taken as Pharisaic on the basis of the studies with Gamaliel ascribed to him (Acts 22:3). And the invective against the Pharisees in Matt 23:15 has been interpreted by Goodman23 as referring to a specifically Pharisaic mission to the diaspora. The destruction of the Jerusalem temple probably led to the dispersal of surviving elements of the Sadducaean high priesthood. And, if the rebels of 66-73 can be regarded, followingJosephus, as embodying a separate strand or 'philosophy' within Judaism, then we should mention here the information given by the historian concerning the transference of the activity of sicarii ('assassins') to Cyrenaica after the failure of the revolt (BJ 7.437-41). Another divergent tendency is represented by those allegorical interpreters of the Law who incurred Philo's strictures (Migr. 89) for proceeding then to disregard it.

The destruction of the temple undoubtedly lent momentum to the development of the synagogue as a source of local self-sufficiency, though it is hard to judge the pace of change. The Greek word itself means simply 'assembly' or 'association'. The synagogue came to be almost exclusively associated with the practice of Judaism, whether referring to the religious community or to its communal building. Apart from Torah reading, study, recitation and prayer, this became a key physical venue for charitable, social and political activity. Archaeologically, the fifteen or so excavated diaspora synagogues have been

22 Sanders, Judaism: practice and belief, 47-303; cf. Rutgers, Jews in late ancient Rome, 201-9.

23 Goodman, 'Jewish proselytizing', 61-2.

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