aftermath of Jesus' death and resurrection, perhaps under the leadership of a disciple of Jesus who inspired the text's Beloved Disciple. This egalitarian fellowship remembered46 what Jesus said and did and engaged in scriptural interpretation47 to make sense of their experience. The community interpreted the mission of their rabbi or teacher48 with the resources of their Jewish tradition, understanding him to be one sent from God,49 a prophet like Moses,50 the Messiah,51 the Son of Man,52 Son of God,53 an embodiment of God's word.54 Beyond traditional titulature, the gospel appropriated symbols from Jerusalem's cultic tradition and applied them to Jesus as the new temple,55 the source of 'living water'56 and 'light',57 whose life reflected the biblical liturgical cycle.58 This Judaean Johannine community probably expanded with converts from Samaria, who introduced distinctive messianic expectations focused on a Mosaic prophet.59 In the face of external be even stronger. Although Jesus is said by Philip to be 'the son ofJoseph, from Nazareth' (John 1:45), there is a suggestion thatJudaeais also his own 'homeland'. The reference to 'his own' who did not receive him (John 1:11) is particularly true of'the Judaeans', from whom, paradoxically also comes salvation (John 4:22). The ignorance of the Judaeans in 7:27 may also extend to their unawareness of aJudaean origin (Bethlehem?) for Jesus.
46 'Remembering' seems to be a technical term for this community See John 2:17, 22; 12:16.
47 On Johannine use of scripture, see Daly-Denton, David. On the precise form of John's biblical text, see Menken, Old Testament quotations.
48 For this title, see John 1:38, with both Hebrew (rabbi) and Greek(didaskalos); 3:2,10; 11:28; 13:13-14; 20:16, again using Hebrew (rabbouni) and Greek (didaskalos) forms.
49 This is the most common way of thinking about Jesus in the gospel. Cf.434; 5:23-4, 30, 37; 6:38-9; 6:44; 7:16, 28, 33; 8:16, 18, 26, 29; 9:4; 12:44-5, 49; 13:16, 20; 14:24, 26; 15:21, 26; 16:5, 7; 20:21.
50 Cf. 1:45; 4:19; 6:14; 7:40; 9:17. For background, see esp. Meeks, Prophet-king.
51 Cf. 1:41, where the title is handily translated as Christos, as at 4:25, on the lips of the Samaritan woman.
52 Cf. 1:51; 3:13-14; 5:27; 6:27, 53, 62; 8:28; 9:35 ('of God' is a variant); 12:23, 34; 13:31. The gospel's treatment of this title merits more attention. See below.
53 Cf. 1:18 (on the textual crux, see Ehrman, The Orthodox corruption, 78-82), 1:34, 49 ( = king of Israel); 3:16-18, 35-6; 5:19-26; 6:40; 8:35-6; 10:36; 11:4, 27 ( = Christos); 14:13; 17:1; 19:7; 20:31 ( = Christ).
54 John 1:1, 14. The Christology of the prologue, with its obvious echoes of the figure of divine wisdom (Prov 8; Sir 24; Wis 7), heavily influenced the appropriation of the gospel through the centuries, but it is not the end of the gospel's christological story.
57 Cf. John 1:9; 8:12. Both the last reference and the water image of ch. 7 appear within the feast of Tabernacles (John 7:2), which prominently featured both symbols.
58 The cycle, based on Exod 23:14-17; Lev 23:3-44; Num 9:9-39, is partially reflected in the sequence sabbath (John 5:9); Passover (6:4); Succoth or Booths (7:2); Channukah (10:22). The sabbath is obviously a weekly festival, but is mentioned first in the pentateuchal festival calendars.
59 A Samaritan mission is attested in Acts 8, but as apost-resurrection event. John 4 suggests that Samaritans became disciples during Jesus' lifetime. That claim maybe part of the historical 'palimpsest' of the gospel highlighted by Martyn.
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