prophetism of,32i

Quartodeciman controversy and, 320 self-definition and differentiation vis-a-vis Jewish matrix, 22i Melitius of Lycopolis, 522, 557, 559, 565 'Memoirs of Pilate and the Saviour', 34, i77, 52i memorial nature of eucharist, i64-5, i66 Menander (Samaritan Gnostic), 345 Mensurius, bishop of Carthage, 520, 522 Mesopotamia. See Syria and Mesopotamia Messiah, Jesus as, 24-6, i3i

Messianism, Jewish revolt of 115 /116 ce having overtones of,67 Methodius of Olympus, 320 Middle Platonism

Hermogenes of Antioch and, 446 Marcion's Christianity derived from, 198 of Origen, 464

origins and derivation of philosophy, 236 rise of, 78, 435

Rome, philosophical schools of, 406-11 Tatian on monotheism and creation, 445 Zoroaster's popularity with, 237 Milan, Edict of, 542, 543 military life

Christian limitations regarding, 287, 534 execution of soldiers for refusal to serve after conversion, 391 laurel wreath, Christian soldier's refusal to wear, 388 'Thundering Legion', legend of, 453 millenarianism. See entries at apocalypticism Miltiades (apologist), and Christian literary culture ofAsia Minor and Achaea, 3i5, 3i6, 326

Miltiades, bishop of Rome, 523 Milvian bridge, battle of,522, 542, 543 ministry, 79,153-6, 269 See also diakonoi; ecclesiastical structures; episkopoi; presbyteroi Minucius Felix apologetics of, 392 Fronto's oration preserved by, 509 on Graeco-Roman intellectual culture, 392 North African Christianity, evidence for, 38i, 386

social and educational levels of early Christian leaders evidenced from writing styles, i59 visual representation, Christian deity as beyond, 569 miracle stories, modern historical approach to, 22 Mithras, cult of

Christian adaptation of, i4 mithraea or cult sites used by, 583 Roman attraction to, 80 mixed marriages

Christians and non-Christians, 278-9, 280, 283

in Jewish diaspora, 58 persons of different social status, 279 modalist monarchianism, 323, 327, 457 Modestus, on Marcion, 195

monarchian controversies, 323, 327, 456-63, 465 monarchy and monotheism, affinity between, 536

monarchy and one substance (of God and

Christ) as concomitants, 563 monasticism in Egypt, 350

as legacy of persecution of Christians, 523 in Syria and Acts of Thomas, 357 Monica (mother ofAugustine), marriage to non-Christian of, 279 monogenes formula in Nicene Creed, 562, 567 monotheism affinity between monarchy and, 536 Graeco-Roman vs. Jewish and Christian concepts of,240-3 Jewish Christianity's veneration ofJesus threateningJewish concept of, i00 monotheism and Christology, 452-3 Arian controversy over (See Arius and

Arianism) cosmological concerns of 2nd century affecting concepts of, 453-6 developmental vs. dialectical model of, 452,

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