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communion bread, but actually remaining fairly independent.43 The 'fraction-alised' house churches were scattered around various districts,44 each with its own leadership, while the secretary or president of the overarching forum of presbyters and teachers was spokesperson for the Roman congregations collectively in relation to churches elsewhere in the empire, and perhaps also the co-ordinator of relief for the poor. The terms presbyteros and episkopos seem not to have been clearly differentiated at first, and there was a long process before a 'monarchical bishop' gained supervisory authority over all the communities.45

Exactly when this happened is a matter of considerable debate. Lampe46 argued that it was the actions of Victor in the Quartodeciman controversy that effected this, noting also that the lists of bishops guaranteeing apostolic tradition seem to have been constructed in the same period.47 Victor, however, was not entirely successful and, according to Brent,48 Hippolytus and his supposed schism, which belong to a somewhat later period, may best be interpreted in the light of continued struggles between different congregations or 'schools' prior to the effective establishment of a monarchical episcopal authority.

Eusebius had in his library the works of a bishop called Hippolytus, but he did not know what his see was; neither did Jerome some years later. Their lists of works, now mostly lost, included one entitled Refutatio omnium haeresium ('The refutation of all heresies'). In 1842, a substantial amount of a work with that title was discovered in a manuscript from Mount Athos. Nineteenth-century scholarship concluded this was Hippolytus' work. Coupled with other discoveries, this contributed to the creation of a portrait of a scholarly 'antipope', critical of Callistus (a fact misunderstood or suppressed by Eusebius), destined to die as a martyr with Callistus' successor, Pontianus. In the mid-twentieth century, the theory that the various works by then attributed to him actually came from two different people began to disturb this picture.49 All along a key piece of evidence had been a statue with a plinth naming works more or less corresponding with Eusebius' list. Bringing together a more critical understanding of the statue50 and the picture of the 'fractionalised'

43 Lampe, Paul to Valentinus; Brent, Hippolytus; Stewart-Sykes, Hippolytus, introduction.

44 Lampe, Paul to Valentinus, maps 1 and 2, for the seven ecclesiastical districts arranged within the fourteen Augustan administrative districts.

46 Lampe, Paul to Valentinus, 397-408.

48 Brent, Hippolytus.

49 Nautin and Simonetti led the discussion; for details see now Brent, Hippolytus.

50 Brent, Hippolytus, develops the earlier work of Guarducci on the statue.

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