historical Jesus, detachment from, 33 Irenaeus' theories of,245, 254-6 (See also entries at Irenaeus of Lyons) Justin Martyr's invention of, 253-4 monotheism and creation, as stimulus for early church to work out ideas about, 439, 447

Novatian schism and authority regarding, 4ii -i2

Origen's denunciation as heretic by

Justinian, 344 persecution of Christians, legacy of, 503, 522-3

persecution ofheretics and schismatics,

503, 523

Roman philosophical schools'

contributions to concept of,408, 4i0 Simon Magus regarded as originator of,

245, 246, 254, 264 single gospel use regarded as heterodox, 207

Hermas. See Shepherd ofHermas Hermes, Christ represented as, 574, 580 Hermogenes of Antioch, 393, 445-8, 560 Herod Agrippa (Agrippa I), 40, 76 Herod Antipas court and social circle, 42, 43 John the Baptist executed by, 28, 40 personal income levied from Galileans for, 46

Sepphoris and Tiberias as Herodian cities,

Herod the Great building projects of, 40, 48, 49 rule of,39, 48, 5i, 76


Jewish patronage resulting from diplomacy of, 66

replacement of Hasmoneans by, 39 Roman empire and, 76 rule of, 39-40, i35 wealthy aristocracy 43-7 Herodotus, 23i Hess, Hamilton, 428-33 Hexapla, 494 Hieracas, 555, 562 Hierapolis. See also Papias Jewish necropolis of,63 Hieracas of Leontopolis, 333 Hieropolis. See Abercius hinterlands. See rural areas Hippolytus of Rome. See also Apostolic Tradition apocalypticism of, 53i on baptism, i60, 394 on Basilides, 44i Callistus, opposition to, 405, 48i creeds, use of, 425

as evidence of 'fractionated' Roman

Christianity, 400 Jewish Christianity evidenced in works of, 96

Johannine writings defended by, 324 life and works, 405

mixed marriages of persons of different social status, 279 monarchian controversies, role in, 456-63 politics and government, attitude towards,

53i school of,488 Syntagma, i95 on Valentinus, 253 historia, 495

historical plausibility, criterion of, 22 historiographical considerations, 586-9 demographics of early Christianity, 302, 306, 3i2

diversity vs. uniformity as characteristic of early Christianity, xvi 'early catholicism' (institutionalisation of

Christianity), i22-4, i33, i54-5, 263 faith and history, tension between, i6 Gnosticism, 246 -8 Jesus, difficulty of writing historical biography of,xiv, 8, 9, 20 (See also Jesus)

Luke and Acts, historiographical nature of, i88, i89, i93

simple model of early Christian history, move away from, xiii social history vs. intellectual history, xvi History of Religions school

Gnosticism, scholarly approaches to, 247 Hellenistic culture and development of Christianity 19 Holl, Karl, 312 Holtzmann, Oskar, 17 holy kiss, 170

'Holy Land', concept of,296, 547. See also

Jerusalem, pilgrimage to; true cross and holy sepulchre holy sepulchre. See true cross and holy sepulchre Holy Spirit. See also Divine Wisdom anointing with oil in baptism associated with gift of,i63 Asia Minor and Achaea, theological traditions of,324 filioque controversy, 567 Gentile Christianity, as true agent of, in Acts, 108

Johannine Christianity and, 125, 139 Montanism and, 427 Homer

Christian apologists' use of, 232 moral use of literature, Origen's borrowing of pagan justification of,

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