individuals Paul greets in Romans i6. Presumably, they had returned to Rome after the death of Claudius in the autumn of 54, along with others - it is noticeable how many individuals Paul apparently knows in the capital, despite as yet never having been there. His letter numbers not less than twenty-eight people known to him in Rome,28 mostly women and immigrants who belonged to the lower social classes and were either of slave origin or, when freeborn, without great wealth, reputation or prestige.29 Some were craftsmen and traders; Paul, Aquila and Priscilla were leather workers. Migration to and from Rome is a feature of church life from the beginning.
Tradition suggests that both Peter and Paul came to Rome and suffered martyrdom under Nero.301 Clement 5, written in Rome in the 90s, alludes to the many struggles and ultimate passage to glory ofboth Peter and Paul. Eusebius31 reports that Paul was beheaded in Rome and Peter crucified, and already refers to the attachment of their names to cemeteries there - indeed, he quotes from a Roman churchman named Gaius (c.200): 'I can point out the monuments of the victorious apostles. If you will go as far as the Vatican or the Ostian Way, you will find the monuments of those who founded this church.' The site of the Vatican was an out-of-town cemetery, as archaeological investigations have shown. Tradition places the tomb of Peter under the altar of St Peter's.32 One of the earliest catacombs (under the church of San Sebastiano) also gives evidence of the veneration of Peter and Paul, possibly because their relics were transferred there during persecution. Graffiti33 suggest that pilgrimage to martyrs' tombs was already under way in the third century.
First Clement presupposes that the churches of Corinth and Rome had contact and common interests, and that hospitality was offered to travelling Christians. During the second century the arrival of various Christians in the capital confirms that this network of contacts spread around the empire.34 (Pseudo-?) Ignatius wrote to the Roman Christians expecting to suffer martyrdom when
28 Some scholars (e.g. Manson, 'St Paul's letter') have - in my view unsuccessfully - questioned Rom 16, suggesting it was the close of a version of the epistle sent to Ephesus.
29 A possible exception are Christians who were part of the imperial household, mentioned in Phil 4:22 - presumably they came from Rome; see Mullen, Expansion of Christianity, 198.
30 Gessel, 'Das Tropaion der Petersmemorie'; see i Pet 5:i3; if this reference 'is taken to mean Rome, then i Peter i:i & 5:12-13 preserves the tradition that Peter, Sil[v]a[nu]s, and Mark had come to Rome also ... 1 Clement, 5.1-7 supports the tradition of Peter and Paul as apostles in Rome', Mullen, Expansion of Christianity, 198.
32 Conclusions drawn from the archaeology are highly controversial; see Snyder, Ante pacem.
33 Snyder, Antepacem, 251-8.
34 See chs. 17 and 18, and pt iii, chs. ii and 12, above.
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