than 'us'. This way of thinking turned out to be a tragedy for the Jews; the question has even been raised whether the bloody history of ecclesiastical anti-Semitism, culminating in the Holocaust, would have been possible if there had continued to be a middle group that was recognisably Christian and recognisably Jewish at the same time.57 But it was also a misfortune for the Gentile church, which lost Paul's appreciation for the way in which God's continuing faithfulness to the original chosen people - as evidenced, among other ways, by the existence of a substantial Jewish Christian 'remnant' -proves his unswerving commitment to humanity in general and bears witness to his redemptive purpose for the world.

57 Martyn, in private conversation; cf. Wyschogrod, 'Letter to a friend', 171.

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