Figure 13. Christogram on fourth-century sarcophagus, Museo Pio Cristiano, Musei Vaticani (photo: Robin M. Jensen)

practice. The symbols of life, death, resurrection, divine gift and sacred story provided dynamic, permanent sources for ongoing critical, mystical and theological reflection. The Christian 'gospel' by the time of Constantine, even if it were by no means the universal religion of the empire, had put in place elements of a cultural system that would transform, even as it assimilated, the cultural resources of the Graeco-Roman world.1 That very sense of unity, however, was achieved and protected through the eventual exclusion ofgroups

1 Markus, The End of Ancient Christianity.

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