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this caustic work Numenius shows himself to be an extreme restorer of the dogmatic teachings of the Academy, for he extends his criticism of the school well beyond Zeno. Remarkably, Numenius maintains that the genuine Platonic doctrine had been abandoned by Plato's immediate successors in the early academy: Speusippus, Xenocrates and Polemo (Xenocrates' 'convert'). 'They did not abide by the original tradition,' Numenius argues, 'but partly weakened it in many ways and partly distorted it.':4 In this respect Justin's view of the history of philosophy is closer to that of Numenius than that of either Antiochus or Posidonius, for Justin laments the existence even of 'Platonists' (Dial. 2.i).

The belief in the original unity of philosophy led to attempts to get back to the primitive revelation or ancient theology. Among some Middle Platonists, like Atticus, there seems to have been concern only with the Greek antecedents of Plato: Thales, Solon, Lycurgus and so on/5 Other Platonists, however, were prepared to admit 'barbarian' sources for Plato's wisdom. Apuleius, for example, reports that after the death of Socrates Plato visited the Pythagorean schools ofMagna Graecia and then went onto Egypt, and that he also desired to visit the Indians and Persian magi.:6 Elsewhere, Apuleius relates that Pythagoras himself was instructed by the magi, and in particular by Zoroaster, as well as by the Chaldeans and Brahmans/7

The clearest expression of this attempt to connect Platonic philosophy with 'barbarian' sources is found in the fragmentary remains of Numenius of Apamea. In his dialogue On the good, Numenius claimed that the genuine philosophy of Plato could be recovered by tracing it back to Pythagoras, and from Pythagoras to the most ancient 'barbarian' peoples.

But when one has spoken on this point, and sealed it with the testimony of Plato, it will be necessary to go back and connect it with the precepts of Pythagoras, and to appeal to the famous nations, bringing forward their rites and doctrines and institutions which are formed in agreement with Plato, all that the Brahmans, Jews, magi and Egyptians set forth.i8

15 In a fragment preserved by Eusebius (P.E. n.2.2-4 = fr. i (ed. des Places)), Atticus refers to Plato 'as one truly sent down from heaven in order that the philosophy taught by him might be seen in its fullest proportions'. The language is strikingly similar to Justin's description of the revelation contained in the writings of Moses and the prophets (Dial. 2.i-2; 7.i-2).

16 Pl. i.3 (ed. Thomas); cf.Cic. Fin. 5.87; Plut. Dels. et Os. 354e; Diog. Laert. 3.6; Philostr. VA i.2. Clement of Alexandria (Str. i.66.3) and Origen (C. Cels. 4.39) were familiar with this report as well.

17 Fl. i5 (ed. Helm); cf. Paus. 4.32.4 and the anonymous Prolegomena philosophiae Platonicae in Platonis dialogi, Hermann (ed.), vol. vi, 202.

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