social status of early Christians, 310 Gregory of Tours, on martyrdom of Irenaeus of Lyons, 372 'group literacy', i92 guilds. See voluntary associations gymnasium, Christian attendance at, 287

Habib, deacon of Tell-She, 311 Hadrian, emperor

Bar Kochba revolt under, 67, 77 Pantheon as built by 83 rescript of, 508 Hadrumetum, North Africa, catacombs of, 308, 382 Hananiah (Rabbi), 525 'hard' vs. 'soft' monotheism, 240-3 Harnack, Adolf von on Christian self-definition, 234, 246 demographics of early Christianity, 302,

304, 306

on Egyptian Christianity, expansion of,348 'liberal lives ofJesus', views on, 17 on Marcion, 203, 204, 207, 210 on Marcion's ideas of creation, 440 on social and ecclesial life of earliest Christians, 145

Hasmoneans, 39

healing and bodily wholeness as important Christian theme in Syria and Mesopotamia, 357, 358, 361, 362, 365 Hebrew Bible. See Jewish scriptures Hebrews canonicity of, 212

evidence of Jewish Christianity in, 95 Jewish war of 66-73 ce shaping culture of, 2i8

second generation of Pauline writings, i06

self-definition and differentiation vis-a-vis

Jewish matrix, 2i7, 2i8 social and educational levels of early Christian leaders evidenced from writing styles, 158 Hebrews, Gospel according to. See Gospel according to the Hebrews Hecataeus ofAbdera, 231 Hecataeus ofMiletus, 23i Hegesippus, i95, 308

Helena (mother ofConstantine), i-8, 23, 34

Helenus ofTarsus, 3i6, 328


Christ represented as sun god, 12,571,

570-2, 580

Constantine's dedication to Sol Invictus,

Hellenistai, 150

Hellenistic culture and development of Christianity, ch. i, 2, ii, 27. See also Roman empire Hellenistic Judaism. See Jewish diaspora; Jews and Judaism Henchir Skihra (Byzacena), archaeological evidence of Christian demographics at,

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