time, creation of world in, 436, 442 creation ex nihilo (out of nothing). See also cosmology/cosmogony; monotheism and creation Basilides on, 441-2 concept and linguistics of,436-7 cosmological context of,454

heretical groups as stimulus for early church to work out ideas about, 439 Irenaeus of Lyons on, 449-50 Marcion and Tertullian on, 440, 447 Tatian approaching, 445 Theophilus ofAntioch on, 447-8 Valentinian ideas regarding, 443 creation (ktisma), Son as, 555, 564 creation out of material substrate Athenagoras, 445 Hermogenes of Antioch, 445-7 Justin Martyr, 444

persistence in Christian thought, 446 Platonic concept of,436 creeds

Apostles' Creed, 428, 566 Nicene Creed (See Nicene Creed) use of,425 Crescens, 407

Crete. See Greece and Aegean islands Crimean Bosphorus, manumission inscriptions of, 64 Crispina, martyrdom of, 520 cross and crucifixion. See also true cross and holy sepulchre historical inferences regarding, 24-6 Marcionite explanation of,i97 rarity of early visual representations of,5, 58i

Roman conviction and crucifixion ofJesus, historical inferences regarding, 24-6 sign ofthe cross, i70

social structure ofJesus and his followers, significance for, i46 staurogram, i92 titulus, 484, i-4, 8, 24 Crossan, John Dominic, 2i culture, Christianity as, i70-3 culture, material. See material culture culture oflocality Christian adaptation of, 300 cultus, history ofJesus overlaid by, 8-i5 curses and cursing birkat-hamminim, i00, i32, 227 Lycian curse texts, 64 cursus publicus (Roman postal and courier system), 74 Cybele, i2, 79, 3i7, 384 Cynicism, 79, 407, 408 Cyprian, bishop of Carthage confessors, 390, 393, 473 councils and synods, inception of,43i, 432 death of, 5i6

Decian persecutions and, 389-90, 470-i, 5i4

demographics of early Christianity educed from letters of,305, 306, 307 discipline and repentance of sinners following baptism, 389-90, 428 dreams, revelatory nature of,394 episcopal authority, ecclesiological argument in favour of, 411, 474-5 Firmilian's correspondence with, 328 heretics, validity of baptisms performed by,

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