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Was being added that of outspoken opposition to 'the Roman gods' and to the Roman state. At the turn of the third century, the Christians were being perceived as prime internal enemies of the empire and of the values for which it stood. Other factors, however, were turning in the new religion's favour. In the first half of the third century, Christianity could no longer be identified with 'the lower orders fomenting discontent'. Origen replying to Celsus c.248 describes how an increasing number...

Asia Minor and Achaea Christine Trevett

The early Roman empire in the east (Oxford Oxbow Books, 1997). . Graecia capta the landscapes ofRoman Greece (Cambridge Cambridge University Press, Ando, C. Imperial ideology and provincial loyalty in the Roman empire (Berkeley University of California Press, 2000). Arnold, C. E. The Colossian syncretism the interface between Christianity and folk belief at Colossae, WUNT 2 77 (1995). . Ephesians, power and magic the concept of power in Ephesians in light of its historical...

Towards a Christian paideia

Teaching and Learning in Early Christianity Probably in the year 245 ce, someone named Theodore delivered an oration celebrating the character and work of the great Christian scholar, Origen.1 This panegyric has traditionally been attributed to Gregory Thaumaturgus,2 the founder of the church in Pontus (north-east Turkey). Whoever the author was, he was clearly a student of this renowned teacher during the years that Origen spent in Caesarea. The speech is of great importance in revealing to us...

Vt

Journal of biblical literature Journal of Egyptian archaeology Journal of early Christian studies Journal ofecclesiastical history Journal of Jewish studies Jewish quarterly review Journal ofreligion Journal of Roman archaeology Journal of Roman studies Journal for the study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman periods Journal for the Study of the New Testament Journal oftheological studies Kerygma und Dogma M nchener theologische Zeitschrift Neue kirchliche Zeitschrift La nouvelle...

Ecclesiology forged in the wake of persecution

The Decian persecution and its immediate effects The persecutions under the emperor Decius (249-5i CE) divided the churches and had lasting consequences for the way the church was perceived and organised. Before 250 CE, Christians had been persecuted from time to time. The severity and extent varied greatly, and the legal basis remains uncertain. Although there were occasional imperial rescripts or other enactments, local popular feeling and the personal attitude of local officials (always...

Jewish identity and religious practice in the diaspora

Jewish identities in the ancient Mediterranean varied widely, as might be expected. But it is possible still to speak of common features. The understanding of what was meant by a 'Jew' comprised, as in later ages, both ethnic and religious elements. In the absence of a central authority, and across a long stretch of time and a wide range of localities subject to diverse regional influences, it might seem rash even to attempt a generalization about diaspora religious practice.14 Nevertheless, we...

Enculturation of architecture from house church to basilica

Although Paul asserted that the Christian God has no human-made shrine, early Christians nevertheless needed space where they might meet for communal prayer and meals. At first it appears that they continued to spend time together in the temple as well as gathering in homes to eat and perhaps to pray and study (cf. Acts 2 46, 5 42 and 20 7-9). In this sense they were like another 19 Grabar, Christian iconography, 132 Milburn, Early Christian art, 109 van der Meer, Early Christian art, 120-2...

Gentile Christianity Margaret M Mitchell

Bauckham, R. 'What if Paul had travelled east rather than west ' BibInt 8 (2000), 171-84. Baur, F. C. The church history of the first three centuries, vol. i, 3rd ed., A. Menzies (trans.) (London Williams and Norgate, 1878). . Paul, the apostle of Jesus Christ his life and work, his epistles and his doctrine a contribution to a critical history of primitive Christianity, 2 vols., 2nd ed., A. Menzies and E. Zeller (eds. and trans.) (London Williams and Norgate, 1875-6). Becker, J. Paul, apostle...

The Emergence of the Written Record Margaret M Mitchell

J. 'The origin and function of the pre-Markan miracle catenae', JBL 91 (1972), 198-221. Alexander, L. 'The living voice skepticism towards the written word in early Christian and in Graeco-Roman texts', in The Bible in three dimensions, D. J. A. Clines, S. E. Fowl and S. E. Porter (eds.), JSOTSup 87 (1990), 221-47. Baarda, T. 'De Christi scriptis' Jesus as author in early Christian literature', SNTS presidential address, 1 August 2001. Bauckham, R. (ed.). The gospels for all...

The first Council of Nicaea Mark Edwards

The early episcopal career of Athanasius, CJA 6 (1991). Bardy, G. 'L r action E s bienn t l schisme d Sardiq ', ch. 2 of J.-R. Palanq , G. Bardy and P. d L brioll , Histoire de l'Egl se depuis les origines jusqu' nos jours, vol. Iii De l paix const ntinienne l mort de Th odose, A. Flich and V Martin ( ds.) (Paris Bloud & Gay, I936), 97-I30. Bindley, T. H. The oecumenical documents ofthe faith the Creed ofNicaea, three epistles ofCyril, the Tome of Leo, the Chalcedoni n...

Constantine and the peace of the church ayeril camerqn

The reign of Constantine (306-37 ce) was momentous for Christianity. Before it, and indeed during Constantine's first years, Christians continued to suffer persecution after it, all but one emperor followed Constantine's example in supporting Christianity. Christianity did not become the official religion of the empire under Constantine, as is often mistakenly claimed, but imperial hostility had turned into enthusiastic support, backed with money and patronage. However, some of Constantine's...

Selfdefinition visvis the Jewish matrix

To speak of early Christian self-definition is to recognise that the sense of self always implies differentiation from one or more 'others'. This and the following chapter identify those significant 'others' as the 'Jewish matrix' and the 'Graeco-Roman world' differentiation from 'Gnostic' groups (ch. 12 below) is arguably different in kind. A significant point, then, on the path towards differentiation, although not its culmination, might be the self-understanding of the Christians as a 'third...

Geographical factors

As one moves from west to east, both Galilee and Judaea follow a similar pattern in geomorphic terms - coastal plain, central hill country, rift valley and the uplands of Transjordan. On a north-south axis, however, real differences emerge due to the variety of climatic conditions. The marked decrease in annual rainfall from north to south is quite obvious in the landscape. Whereas the central Galilean hill country, with its rich alluvial soil and many springs, has a number of wide valleys...

Institutions in th preConstantinian ecclesia

By the time of Constantine the church was a sufficiently robust organisation for the emperor to engage it as a partner in unifying the empire. Systems of authority, patterns of belief and control of funds and property had turned the early household communities into an interlinked, empire-wide organisation that increasingly mirrored the structure of the empire itself. It is a telling fact that when Julian the Apostate tried to put the clock back in the 360s, he 'determined to introduce into the...

Selfdifferentiation among Christian groups the Gnostics and their opponents

When around 180 ce Bishop Irenaeus of Lyons wrote his Detection and refutation of gnosis falsely so-called, known simply by the Latin title Adversus haereses ('Against heresies'), he hoped to bring order to a confused situation. A bewildering number of'Christian' groups and teachers offered interested persons salvation, often in the form of gnosis ('knowledge' or 'acquaintance') with God. Yet the teachings and practices of these 'Christians' displayed an astonishing diversity on such issues as...

Jewish Christianity Joel Marcus

J. 1 Peter a commentary on First Peter, Hermeneia (Minneapolis Fortress, i996). Alexander, P. S. 'The parting of the ways from the perspective of rabbinic Judaism', in Jews and Christians the parting of the ways, ad 70 to 135, The second Durham-T bingen research symposium on earliest Christianity and Judaism (Durham, September i989), J. D. G. Dunn (ed.), WUNT 66 (i992), i-25. Allison, D.C. 'The fiction of James and its Sitz im Leben', RB i08 (200i), 529-70. Bagatti, B. The church...

Monotheism and creation Gerhard

The Cambridge history of later Greek and early medieval philosophy (Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1967). Dihle, A. The theory of will in classical antiquity, Sather classical lectures 48 (Berkeley University of California Press, 1982). Ehrhardt, A. The beginning a study in the Greek philosophical approach to the concept of creation from Anaximander to St John (Manchester Manchester University Press, 1968). Grant, R. M. The early Christian doctrine of God...

Development and legacy

The era of the Second Temple in Jewish history, from the return from the Babylonian captivity in 538 bce to the Roman sacking of Jerusalem in 70 ce, has aptly been described as the period of'formative Judaism'. Many of the features and institutions of Judaism as we understand it took shape during this period. Among these developments, there can be no disputing the overwhelming historical importance of the diaspora, or dispersion - in other words, the adjustment to a division of the people...

Monotheism and Christology

Ifthese people worshipped no other god but one, perhaps they would have a valid argument against the others. But in fact they worship to an extravagant degree this man who appeared recently, and yet think it is not inconsistent with monotheism if they also worship his servant. This theological problem lay at the heart of early Christianity, but explicit argument about how to deal with it conceptually is not found until the third century with the 'monarchian' controversies. A model of...

Monotheism and Christology Frances M Young

Paul de Samosate (Bruges Imprimerie Sainte-Catherine, 1923). Clark, E. A. The Origenist controversy the cultural construction of an early Christian debate (Princeton Princeton University Press, 1992). Cunliffe-Jones, H. and B. Drewery (eds.). A history of Christian doctrine (Edinburgh T& T Clark, 1978). Danielou, J. Origen, W Mitchell (trans.) (New York Sheed & Ward, 1955). De Riedmatten, H. Les actes du proce s de Paul de Samosate e tude sur la christologie du iiie au iVe si...

From Jerusalem to the ends of the earth Margaret M Mitchell

Freedom and obligation a study of the epistle to the Galatians (Philadelphia Westminster, I985). Bauckham, R. James wisdom ofJames, disciple ofJesus the sage (London Routledge, I999). Chilton, B. andC. A. Evans. The missions of James, Peter, and Paul, NovTSup 115 (2005). Conzelmann, H. Acts ofthe Apostles, Hermeneia (Philadelphia Fortress, I987). Dibeli s, M. James, rev. by H. Greeven, M. A. Williams (trans.), Hermeneia (Philadelphia Fortress, I976). Dieterich, A. Die Grabschrift...

Syria and Mesopotamia Susan Ashbrook Harvey

The cultic setting of realized eschatology in early Christianity, NovTSup 28 (1972). BeDuhn, J. The Manichaean body in discipline and ritual (Baltimore Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000). Behr, J. The way to Nicaea The formation of Christian theology, vol i (Crestwood, NY St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 2001). Brock, S. P. 'The Baptist's diet in Syriac sources', OrChr 54 (1970), 113-24. . 'Christians in the Sasanid empire a case of divided loyalties', in S. P. Brock, Syriac...

Constantine and the peace of the church Averil Cameron

D. 'Constantine and the Christians of Persia', JRS 75 1985 , 126-36. . 'The editions of Eusebius' Ecclesiastical history', GRBS 21 1980 , 191-201. . The new empire ofDiocletian and Constantine Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press, 1982 . Baynes, N. H. Constantine the Great and the Christian church, British Academy, annual Raleigh lecture 1930 New York Haskell House, 1975, 1930 . Borgehammar, S. How the Holy Cross was found from event to medieval legend Stockholm Almqvist amp...

General bibliography of sources cited

The following is a list of sources, texts and editions referred to by authors in this volume, not an exhaustive bibliography. For a more complete catalogue, readers should consult F. Young, L. Ayres and A. Louth eds. , Cambridge history of early Christian literature Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 2004 , and S. Dopp and W Geerlings eds. , Dictionary of early Christian literature, M. O'Connell trans. New York Crossroad, 2000 . See List of Abbreviations, pp. xxxvii-xliv, for acronyms of...

Marcion and the Canon Harry Y Gamble

D. 'Tertullian's quotations from St Luke', Mnemosyne 5 1937 , 241-82. Aland, B. 'Marcion Versuch einer neuen Interpretation', ZTK 70 1973 , 420-47. .'Marcion Marcioniten', TRE 22 1992 , 89-101. Balas, D. L. 'Marcion revisited a post-Harnack perspective', in Texts and testaments, W E. March ed. San Antonio, TX Trinity University Press, 1980 , 95-108. Barton, J. 'Marcion revisited', in The canon debate, L. M. McDonald and J. A. Sanders eds. Peabody, MA Hendrickson, 2002 , 241-354....

I3 Truth and tradition Irenaeus Denis Minns

III.3.2 ccl si romana and omnis ccl si nd ibid. 3.3 Anacl t s of Rome', JTS 28 1977 , 101-4. Aland, B. 'Fides und s biectio zur Anthropologie d s Iren us', in Kerygm und Logos beitrage zu den geistesgeschichtlichen Beziehungen zwischen Antike und Christentum. Festschrift fu r Carl Andresen zum 70. Geburtstag, A. M. Ritter d. Gotting n V nd nhoeck amp Ruprecht, 1979 , 9-28. An tolios, K. Athanasius the coherence of his thought. London Routledge, 1998 . Andia,...

Maureen A Tillet

HE 7.13 finds no echo of application in Africa. This does not mean that buildings set aside specifically as churches did not exist before 300 ce, but that there is no evidence of them. Catacombs testify to early Christianity in Africa. The oldest, those at Hadrumetum, date from mid-third century.3 By then the city already had a bishop. Despite the title Bonpasteur, there is no indication that Christians established the catacomb or that their burials constituted the majority there. There is no...

Specialised bibliographies by chapter

Prelude Jesus Christ, foundation of Christianity Frances M. Young Allison, D. C. Jesus ofNazareth millenarian prophet Minneapolis Fortress, 1998 . Bauckham, R. The climax of prophecy Edinburgh T amp T Clark, 1993 . Bockmuehl, M. N. A. ed. . The Cambridge companion to Jesus Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 2001 . Chilton, B. Rabbi Jesus an intimate biography New York Doubleday, 2000 . Crossan, J. D. The historical Jesus the life of a Mediterranean Jewish peasant San Francisco...

Birger A Pearson

Evidence for Christianity in Egypt consists of non-literary and literary sources. There is virtually no archaeological evidence datable to before the fourth century, apart from a few scattered architectural fragments which are supposed to come from the earliest attested church in Alexandria, that of Theonas bishop 282-300 ce .1 The earliest identifiably Christian tombs date from the fourth century.2 There are no Christian inscriptions from Egypt datable to before the fourth century.3 The meagre...

Marcion and the canon

Marcion is one of the most intriguing yet elusive figures in early Christian history. It is proof of his prominence that, among the diverse forms of Christianity that flourished in the second century, his was the most frequently and forcefully attacked by anti-heretical writers, and was apparently perceived as the most dangerous Marcion has likewise interested modern scholars, not only because of the peculiarities of his teachings but also because of his possible influence on one of the most...

Dmt And Christianity

Comprised of a list of passages culled from the scriptures that Christians took to be references to Jesus - his life, actions especially miracles , death and remarkable resurrection.12 Hence the first element in the establishment of the Christian 'written record' was the singularly most significant decision -initially through the reflexive retention of the unquestioned literary authority of the word of God by faithful Jews, and later as a conscious step in literary appropriation by Gentiles who...

Nd

Recogn. Adversus Judaeos Homiliae 1-88 in Johannem Academicae quaestiones Pro Cluentio Definibus De haruspicum responso De natura deorum De republica Paedagogus Protrepticus Quis dives salvetur Stromateis Ascents ofJames Epistula Petri ad Jacobum Homiliae Kerygmata Petrou Recognitiones Constantine Const. Oratio ad sanctorum coetum Catech. 1-18 Catecheses illuminandorum Catech. 19-23 Catecheses mystagogicae Ep. Const. Epistula ad Constantium de visione crucis...

From Jerusalem to the ends of the earth

Both the apostle Paul and the risen Jesus according to Luke envision a spreading of the Christian movement out from Jerusalem into the circumference of the Mediterranean world, as far as Rome, and 'to the ends of the earth' Acts 1 8 Rom 15 19, 24 . The chapters in this section will trace the progress and effects of that dispersion of Christian communities in the first three centuries -to Asia Minor, Achaea, Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, Gaul, North Africa and Rome. The purpose of such regional...

Mitchell Abercius

Abercius inscription fragments, Museo Pio Cristiano, Musei Vaticani photo Margaret M. Mitchell companions' who celebrated the eucharist and knew Paul and shared Aber-cius' faith, reinforced his grand conception of a single 'people' and 'kingdom'. Nothing about the inscription is other-worldly.59 Apart from the special Christian images, Abercius employs the usual conventions of an epitaph, including warnings of fines to be paid to the fiscus of Rome and to the patris Hieropolis by...

Markus Vinzent

The perspective adopted here is that Rome absorbed many cross-currents from around the early Christian world, and, far from itself generating or disseminating a specific theology, the Roman church was fragmented and subject to repeated internal upheavals in the first three centuries. Time and again, this church found itself affected by controversies imported by immigrants from around the empire. This seems, generally speaking, a truer characterisation than Walter Bauer's...

Frank Trombley

Methods, sources, and demographic judgements The demographic study of earliest Christianity began with Adolf von Har-nack's Die Mission und Ausbreitung des Christentums. Relying on the critical analysis of literary sources, Harnack saw demographically significant Christian communities wherever there was a martyrdom narrative or clear evidence for an episcopal see. This assessment was influenced by Tertullian and Origen, who both argued that Christianity was expanding rapidly in all parts of the...

Kek

NewDocs New documents illustrating early Christianity, 9 vols., G. H. R. Horsley and S. Llewelyn eds. North Ryde, NSW Ancient History Documentary Research Centre, Macquarie University, 1981 NHMS Nag Hammadi and Manichaean studies Leiden Brill NHS Nag Hammadi studies Leiden Brill NICNT New international commentary on the New Testament Grand Rapids, MI Eerdmans NovTSup Novum Testamentum supplements Leiden Brill NPNF1 Nicene and post-Nicene fathers, series 1 Grand Rapids, MI Eerdmans NPNF2 Nicene...