Seeing the Divine in the Fourth and Early Fifth Centuries

I.. Atll a iiasius, hit!. 14 (t rai is. NPNF 4:43).

2. Athanasiusi, C Cent, 2.34 (trans, NPNF4:22).. Other <christian writers compare the work of the artist to the gradual perfecting of the soul or the colors of an artist's palette as being made up of virtues; see Gregory of Nyssah Arjjfljfl et res., and lohn Chrysostom, Horn. 1 Cor. 13.3: Catech. ilium, 2,3.: Horn. Heb, 17,2; as well as the Acts of John 28-29 quoted above. Margaret Mitchell provided many of ihese references in her art tele/"The Archetypal Image: lohn Chrysosloms Portraits of Paul" Jit 75 (J 995): 15-43, esp. 20-29 and ml 55-57.

3, Origin» Prrpj. 1,2.84. Atli a nan ius, Inc 14.4, co i it.

7. See Augustine's nuanced analysis of the visible works of Christ as showing forth the invisible nature of God, however: Tract. Ev. /a, 24.1-2. In this same homily, Augnstine contrasts seeing pictures with reading texts,

9. Basil of Cacsareaj Spir. Siwic 18 45 (trans. NPNF 8547),

J I. Basil, Adv. Eun. 1,14. Epiphanius, in his refutation, quotes Eunomius as saying that be knew God in complete clarity and in fact did not know himself better than he knew God; Pan. 76.4.1.

12. Gregory of Nyssa, Ad Eun, Lib. 2 ft rans, NPNF 5:308-9),

13. Gregory Nazianzu 5, Theo. Or 2,4 (trans. NPNP 7:289-90),

15. Gregpry of Nyssa, Vita Moses 230-36, trans. Abraham MaLhcrbe and Even-M Irrguson, Gregory afNysm The Life of Mesa, CWS (New York: Pautiit, 197fi), 114-15.

16. John Chrysostom, innom. 3. See the introdnetion of lean l)a melon to the Soared chri}ti-ennes edition of these homilies (Anne Marie Malingrey and Robert Flacelieie, Jean Chrysostome sur I'tncomprehensibilite de i lieu, vol. 1: t iomilies 1 -V, SC 28 his ( ions du Cerf, (970), as well bis a helpful analysis of these sermons in Thomas KopecekM History of Neo-Arianism (Cambridge; Philadelphia Patristic Foundation. 1979), 541—12. See also the cxccllcnt (fbrihcoming) work of Angela Russell Christ man, 'What Did Eiikid See?" Christian Exegesh ofEaekkH't Vision of the Chariot from Iierttuus to Grejjo ry the Great (Bosl on: Bri ll USA, 2005), Chrislma n's work, stiJ I an unpublished manuscript at the time of this writing, provides a detailed examination of patristic exegesis of the theophenks and visions of God in the third and fourth centuries.

18. Hvagrtus, Or 66, trans. John E. Bamberger, Eyagrius ibnfifivs, Tin' Praktikos and Chapters on Prayer (Kalamazoo, Mich.: Cistercian, 1981 J, 66.

19. See Christ man, "What Did Ezekiel SeeT for a discussion of'Hieodoret's writing on this subject.

20, See Andrew Louth, The Origins of the Christian Mystical Tradition: From Plato toDenys (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 198J), chap, 8, h'l>enys the Areopagilc,*1 159-78, Note also that John of ] "3a mil sens cites I'scudo-Dionysius as a source, summarising a passage from the Cei hier. to say thai visible things are corporeal models thai <»[Tcr a vague apprehension of invisible and incorporeal things, I ApoL 10-1 I and J ApoE 2].Compare Theodore the Studite, Ref.2.II, who quotes Pseudo-Dionysins, Hee, hier. 43,1: " Truth is in the likeness, the archetype in the image; each in the other except for the difference of essence.""

21. Pseudo-Dionysus, .Vfyjf, Theo. I. 1000 C-100 L A. In general, but especial!yon this use of the Moses paradigm, see I'aul Itorem* "The Uplifting Spirituality of Pseudo-Dionysius," in Christian Spirituality: Origins to the Twelfth Century, ed. B. McGinn et aL (New York: Crossroad. 1987), 132-51 fe&p. 143^14),

TL Pseudo-Dionysius, DiV ntim. 8-3-869 C-872 B , trans. Louthj Origins of the Christian Mystical Traditiim, 16823. Socrates, Hist, 6.7. See Mark Delcogl i a no, "Situating Arap ion's Sorrow: The Antbropo-morpliite Controversy as the I Historical and Theological Context of Gasman's Tenth Conference on Pure Prayer," CisSt 38.4 (2003;-: 377-421, for an excellent discussion of this topic.

24. Ibid.; also, Eplphanius, iVn, 70; and Jerome, Pftnwi. 11, which refers to the anthropomorphic posit ion as H that foolish heresy,'4

25. John Cassian, Coll. 10,3, trans. Colm l.nibhcid, John Cassian, Conferences, CWS (New York: Pau list, 1985): 127,

26- See discussion aliove, p. ft5.

27. Augustine, Sew, 198.17, trans. Edmund 11 ill, The Works of St Augustine, 1-3, .Sermon; (Newly discovered Sermons 1. ed. J. E- Rote lie (Brooklyn; New City, 1997), 193-94. The columns to which Augustine refers are a bit mysterious. Hill suggests that: Christians Jinay have been kissing the columns as they entered the church,

33. Augustine, lip. 147.20, trans, Roland J. leske, S.J,, !'he Works of Saint Augustine 11.2, Letter* IOO-l55>ed. B. Ramsey (Hyde Park, \.Y.: New City, 2003), 329.

37. Ibid., 37, Teske trans,, 339- The paragraph contains a summary of previous chapters, Augusl i ne, i Iso tred it s Ambrose for some of t h is teaching, I le refers indireclly to (h e anlh ropo-morphite controversy in chap. 49.

33. Augustijie, t ract, hv. jo. 17 19.3, t j>mpare Pid. symh 7.14.

40. Eusebius, Comm. /id. 41, See Michael Hollerich, tinsehius ofCaesarea's Commentary on Isaiah; Christian Exegesis in the Age of Constantine (Oxford: Clarendon, 1999).

41. Euscbius, Dem, !:v, 5.14 (the entire book, however, addresses this matter),

42. Augustine, Trin., 2-4,2^1-22, irans, Edmund Hill, 77ie Works of St- Augustine, 1.5, The Trinity, ed. J. Rotelle(Brooklyn: New dty, 19911, 111.

43.1 hi i\. 12.4.32,13 i 11 trans. h 12.0. to the next para^r-apta, August i nc era I nates Dan iel^s visio n of tb e Ancien t of Days a nd the Soi i of Man.

44. Augustine, Civ. 22.29, trans. Henry Betlenson, Augustine, City of God (London: Penguin, 1972), 1087.

45. Athanasius, Inc. IS-19.

46. See Hans Belting, Image and Presence: A History of the Image before the ¡.rn of An, traits. E- jL'phcolt (Chicago; Univ, <>f Chicago Press, 1991), 1.95,

47. Euscbius, Dpwj. Ev,; 5,9, trans. William J. Ferrar, Eusebius, The. Proof of the Gospel vol. I (iirand Rapids: Baker, 1981), 253- 54, Flhe test certainly seems to contradict Eusehiusfa presumed condemnation of images (see chap. I, pp. 23-25). In 3 ApoL 26 John offers a distinctly different viewpoint from husebius, however "Abraham did not see the divine nature, for no person has ever yet seen God, but he saw an image of God and fell down and worshiped."

49. Suzanne Spain, "'The Promised Blessing'; The Iconography of the Mosaics of S. Maria Maggiore"A0 61 (1979): 518H0. S« discussion of this theory in chap. ft.

Ibid., -39, Spain thus identifies the woman in gold who appears four times on the triumphal urch mosaics (the adorai ion of (he magi. the annunciation» (he vision at the bet rothal of Ma ry a nd Joseph, a nd t he m cet of [ >avid, Isa ia h, and Ch rist) wi I h Sarah, rathe r than Mary in these programs, and argues thai Abraham {his fate badly restored) stands wñh her throughout.

51. See Herbert L. Kessler, Spiritual Siting: Picturing Grid'* Invisibility in Medieval An (Philadelphia: Lmiv. of Pennsylvania Press, 2000), 3-6, for other examples of the liand of Cod in Christian and lewish art.

:¡2, Gregory of Nyssa, Deit., trails, in C. Mango, The Art of the Byzantine Empire 312^1453: ioriiït'j and Documents (Toronto: Univ. of Tbconto Press, 1972), 34.

53- Although the hand is usually interpreted ;ls the hand of Godftbe biblical text actually says that an angel or messenger spoke t±> Abraham, telling him not to slay his son- Thus, if the iconography were (arguably) more closely based upon Che text than Gregorys interpretation, the identification of the hand becomes more complicated.

54. Viewers often remark on the Trinitarian aspects of the scene of |esus: baptism in the dome of the Arian Baptistery in Ravenna, where the imposing figure of the river god seems to suggest the presence of the Father,

55. Paulinus, Ep. 32, Ltt, trans. P .G. Walsh Letters of Paulinus of Nota, vol 2*ACW 36 (Westminster, Md.: Newman, 1967), 145. Compare the description of the imagery in the basilica at Fundi, later in the letter 32.17: a lamb (for Christ )h which is being "haloed" by a dove (Holy Spirit), and crooned by the "Father from a ruddy cloud.1

56. Cain aiid Abel presenting their offerings to Gnd appear on other early Christian sarcophagi, including one that shows the arrests of Peter Eind Paul [see fig. p. Iftft).

57. See Robin Jensen, "The Trinity and the Economy of Salvations/ECS 7 (1999): 527-46h for a rgu ments about d liferent iden t ities o f these figures,

5S. 'litis is the interpretation of licnaeus, Haer. 2.2,4-5 and 5.6.

See André Grabar, Christian Iamogrttphy: A Study of its Origins (Princeton; Princeton Univ. Press, 196S). 113i who cites some ancient Semi lie legends that 1 have been unable to locate. The identity of the person landing behind Mary is troublesome, but, based upon a similar image on a funerary plaque In the Musen Fio Cristiano, it seems reasonable to identify him as Balaam.

60. See the Armenian Infancy Gospel, chap. I 1.19-20, Prendí trans. Paul Peeters, Evangiles Apocryphes II; ¡."Évangile de 1*Enfonce (Paris: A. Picard, 1911-14), 143-44, cited in Thomas F. Mathews., The Clash of Gods: A Re interprétai ion ofEarfy Christian Art, rev. ed. (Princeton: Princeton Univ-, Press, 1999), 139, and nn. -I3> 20Ü, Such a text is similar to the Menologion, which recounts ¡i legend in which one of the magi saw Christ as a baby, the second as a thirty-year-old man, and the third asan old man (that is, Lhe^three ages of man" iradition}. This is Similar 10 the traditional interpretation lhat the gifts "f the magi (gold for royalty, incense for h igh p r i est o r god, and myrr b for th e sufferi ng a nd dyiJig on e) project th ree aspects of Ch rist -see Irenaeus Haer. 3,9; Orlgenb Ham. Num. 13,5; Leo, SerfN, 33.34,and Pulgentius of Ruspe, Ep. Ferrundus 20. See also Robin Jensen, "Witnessing the Divine," BR 17.6 (2001): 24 31, 59,

61. John of Damascus, 2 Apol. 5, trails. Andrew Louth* John of Damascus, Three Treatises on the Divine Images (Crestwood, hLY.; St, Vladimir's Seminary Press, 2003), 61-62, 11ère lohn cites Gregory Nazianzen, Horn. 2B.13,

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