Image and Portrait in Roman Culture and Religion

1. Fliny, Nat, 35-2.1 -7 (trans. LCI 9:26 3-65) r Almost the whole of Hook 33 is dedicated to the visu;lI arts and a lis)ingof famous artistsh including the earliest Greek portrait painlers, Setj for instancy 35-36, especially 93-99 On the painter Aristides, who w«> the "first to depict the mind and express the feelings" of his model

3. ä'lutarch, Alex. I (trans. LCL 7:225). For aiiot her example oflanguage portraiture, with comparison to classical statuary, sec Lucian, Pro imag. and hang.

4. Janice lirecke midge, Likeness: A Conceptual History.' of Ancient Portraiture [ Evanston, III,; Northwestern Univ. lJress: ]%&), 153-56.

5. Reproduced in B recken r i dge, I.rJtarjTL-ji, I ftß, fig. 84. See discussion in Susan Walker, Greek ¿itiil Jifljnti?] Portraits (London: British Museum PressN 1995), chap. 7, "The Roman Image," 72-32.

6. On the Julio-Claud ian portraits Iji general see Charles llrian Rose, Dynastie Commemoration ami imperial Portraiture in the- Jutio-Ctaudian Period (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ, Press, 1997). On the images of Augustus, see Paul Zanker, The PDwcr of Images in the Age of Ati^riiitfi, tnnns. A.. Shapiro (Ann Arbor; Univ, oi Michigan Prfflfli 11988); and las Ebner, "Invenling Imperium: Texts ^nd ihc Propaganda of Monuments in Augustan Romt, in Jai Eisner, ed.s Art and Tßcr "] Culture (Cambridge; Cambridge Univ, Press, 1996), 32-53, For a more general study of Roman sculpture (and portraits) during the Empire, see Diana F.. Et Kleiner, Roman Sculpture (New 1 laven: Vale L'niv. Press, 1992), with full bibliography.

7. On port raits of women in Roman art see Diaooa H, E. Kleiner and Susan B. Matheso n, eds., I Claudia Ii: Women in Roman Art and Society (Austin: Univ, of Texas Press, 2U0Ü),

S. See Richard Brilliant, Raman Art from the Republic to Constant ine (London: Phaidon, 1974), 179-EtO.

9. Sec Walker, GrseJfc and Roman Portraits, chap. 8, bearded and Beardless Men? S3-93,

10. Li. P. L'Orange,"The Origin afMedieval Portraiture, "in Iiis Likeness and Icon: Selected Studies in Classical and Early Mediaeval Art (Odensc; Odensc Univ. Press, 1973), Oil third-century Roman porlrailurc in general, sec Susan Wood, Roman Portrait Sculpture 217-26Ú AD (Leiden; Brill, 1986); and Eve [VAmbra* Art rmtí Identity in the Roman NorUl [London; Cal-mann and Kingh 1998).

11. On the Plotinus p-orLrait from 0¿¡tia,see L'OiHLge> Likstiess and Icon, 32- 4 2.

] 3.1hid., y5-102. Note the quotatioji from Plutarch above. Sec also Pliny Nat. 11.145.

] 4. Kleiner, Soman Sculpture, 3435.

16. On thi s particular point, see Paul Zänker, The Mail; of Socrates: The Image of the Intellectual in Antiquity, trans, A- Shapiro (Berkeley;: Univ. cjf California Press, 1995).

17. IL P L'Orange, Apotlteosis in Ancient Portraiture (Caabridge: Harvard Univ. Press 1947), 19. This semi nal study discusses the image at length and i nc ludes examples from anc ient literature that underscore this aspect of Alexander's reputation.

19, L Orange has much to say about the hair of these figures, 30-42. See alst> Dorothea Michel, Alexander als Vorbild für Pompeitts, Caesar, und Marcus Antonius* archäologische Untersuchungen, Collect Ion l.atomus94 (Brussels: I.atomu*: Revue dhctudcs latines, 1967).

20r See discussion below of the imperial portraits and the relationship of these images to the youthful gnds-

21. Zanker, of Socrates, 202.

25. Folybius, Hisl. 6,53 (trans, LCL 3:389), Compare Ovid, Her. 13,153. and Saflust, Bell, fug, A.5-&, "eminent men oi our country had the habit of saying that whenever (hey contemplated the Émngiíjfí of their ancestors, (heir souls burned with I he most vehcmcnl desire for virtue." These texis are eil cd and translated by Michael Köcrtböjian, ¿Víyfh, Meaning¡ ami Memory on fionum Sarcophagi (Berkeley: Univ, of California Pres^ 1995), 122 -26. See aLso Heinrich Drerup, 111 Einte nmaske und Ahnenbild beiden Römern "JWDAV (R) 87 (1980): 81, 120-29; and Annie Nicolette Zadoks- losephus Jitta, Ancestral Portraiture in Rome and the Art oft!je Ixut Century of the Republic (Amsterdam: Noord Holla ndsche, 1932).

26. Sec Nancy Ra mage and Arthur Ra mage, Row tan Art: Romulus tr CtrríJfflPílJFíe, 3d ed. i Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2001), 142^13 and figs, 4,14—16 of the columbarium of Vigna Codim.

28. See J, M- C- Toynbee, Death ami Burial in the Roman World (Baltimore; John* r lopkinS Univ. Press, 1971),51 52.

29. Augustine,. Mot: eccl.34,75, See discussion of saints1 portraits in chap. 6.

30. Richard Brilliant, "'What Is Death, I hat I Should I'ear It?' Aspects of the Roman Response,L' in fína^r? Antiquität is: Religions et iconographiedu monde romain, melanges offerls á Robert Titrcnn, ed, Nicole blanc and Andre Buisson (Paris; De Boccard, 1999), 145.

31 r Sec, for example, the sarcophagus of Titus Aelius Eu ángelus in Guntram Koch, Jtowfln i'unerary Sculpture: Catalogue of the Collections (Malibu, Califo Paul Getty Museum, I98fi)h 24-27, fig, 9; Robert Tunean, Cart romain dam I'biftctre (Paris: Fkrnmarion, 1995), chap- lh "LTiommage des images auü mortä*1 l7-3t¡ I tans belting, Likeness and Presente: A History of the Image before the Era of Art, trans. E, lephcott (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1994), 78-101,

32. A. general summary in Toynbee, Death and Burial in the Raman l\'urJ¿í, chap. 6, "Gravestones and Tomb Furniture "244—81; Jas Eisner, Imperial Rame and Christian Triumph The An of the Roman Empire AD 100-^50 (Oxford; Oatord Univ, Press, 1998), chap, 6, "Art and Death" 143-65.

33. See Eve I)1 Ambraj "Mourning and the Making of Ancestors on the "lestamentuni Relief"AfA 99 (1995): 6É7-S1-

34. See Susan Wood,"Alcesilson RomanSarcophagi," AJA 82 (1978): 499-510.

35. KoortbajiaDp Myth, Meaning* 124-25. On Dionys i an themes, see Friedrich MatZjDrL' dionysischen Sarkophage 4 (Berlin: Mann, 1968); Robert Turcan, Les sarcophages remains ä representations dionysiaques (Paris: Boccard, 1966); and Karl Lehmann-Hartleben and Erling C. Olsen, Dionyskc Sarcophagi in Baltimore (Baltimore: Walters Art Gallery, 1942).

36. The tomb of Proculus in Naples, catacomb of San Gennaro, is a noteworthy exception, although it dated to the fifth century and was probably a pilgrimage tile; see discussion p 174,

37. Tin.1 portraits of saints in the catacombs ;md oihcr burials are more fully discussed in chap, 53£. Regarding the gold-glass portraits, which are some of the earliest images of the Christian saints, see brief disc ass Eon by Eisner, Imperial Rome, 232- 33 » and the older work by Charles Kofus Morey, '! he Gold-Glass Collection of ihe Vatican i.ibrary, ed. (J. Ferrari (Vatican City: Blblloteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1959).

See Belting, ¿rfrfPfeji and Presence, 78-88, esp. -B2 and fig, 32; also Hans Achelis, Die iiflf(iJfc[iPf)ifeK von Neapel (Leipzig Hiersemann, 1936), 40,62-63, and plate 27. Proculus's i mage is discussed a$iin in diap-6-

40, Or] the imperial cult in general» see Simon R- R Pri^e* fiiriiuJi and The Jiömftpi Imperial Cuit in Aiit? Minor (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge» 19-84); Glien W. Buwersockj "The Imperial Cult: Perceptions and Persistence,11 in Jewish and Christian Self- De fin itia n, voL 3, ed. B. T. Meyer and F. P, Sanders (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1982) J 71^83; Paul Zänker» "The Power of Images," in Pun! and Empire: Religion and Power in Roman Imperial Society, ed. R. A. Horsey (Harrisburg, Pa.; Trinity, 1997), 72-06; Robert Turcan, The Gods of Ancient Rome: Religion in Everyday Life from Archaic to Imperial Times, Irans, A, Ncvill (London:; Routledgc, 2001), 134—43 ["The Imperial Cult"); and Duncan Fishwict, The Imperial Cult in the VVS?if (Leiden: Brill, 19S7).

41. On the apotheosis of Julius Caesar, see Suetonius* Jul, A4; Pliny, Nat 2-94; and DioCas-sius 47.18.3-

42+ I listoriaiis who vi^w the mltir cult in terms of secular power politics include the following: Price, Rituals a fid Power, lohn 11. W. G. Liebeschütz, Continuity ami Change in Roinan Religion (Oxford: Clarendon^ 1979); Lilly Ross Taylor, The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, Conn.: American Philological Association, 193 l)i and Duncan Fishwick, "The Development of Provincial Ruler Worship in the Western Roman Empire»5 in AJVfiW 2,16,2 (1978). On imperial portraits in general sec Niels Hannestad, ¿toman An and Imperial Poticy (Aarhus; Aarhns Univ, I'rtss, 1986); and Brilliant, J!(>»tcth Arf, 87.

43. See Howersock^The Imperial Cull,"on this distinction.

44. An example of this is the riot in Antioch in 3S7 o.e. when citizens destroyed imperial images after Theodosius I tried to impose a new tax/Hie emperor executed all held responsible and punished the entire city by removing its metropolitan statue. See Libanius, Or. ] 9.60-61, a plea tor clemency or reconsideration. See also Chrysostom, itur. 2.1-3, where he said the whole city should feel like lob on his dunghill, lamenting what had befallen them. In addition, Codex Then. 9,4j promulgated in 393 c.e,. seems to make a distinction between ma led ¡l1 ions of the emperors name ottered i" l^viiyand those suggesting actual «edition or sacrilege. On the legal status of the empetorV image* sec Thomas Pekary» Dtfi römische Kaherbildnif in Sifter, JCuJf, und Gesellschaft (Berlin: Mann, 19S5)> Belting, Likeriess and Presence, 105-7. For an illustration and short discussion ofthis leaf of the Rossano (. iospels see Kurt Weit/mann, Late Antique and Early Christian fto]* Illumination (New York: Ceorge Braziller, 19771, 90-93, pis. 30-31.

4Ü. I'liny,i?/r. 10,96.5 (To Trajan). Sec Daniel Schowaltcr, The Emperor and the Gods: Images fro\n the lime of Trajan, HDR 2 it (Minneapolis; Fortress Press* 1993): esp, 4-6,

46. This quotation iippears in Eisner, Imperial Rome, i>4,

47. See Taritus»} list. 4.62 as an example (the defeat of tlic; sixteenth Roman legion by the GauLs).

4ft Paul Corby Finney,, The invisible Godi The Earliest Christians on Art (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1994), 69-70; Meriwether Stuart, "How Were Imperial Portraits Distributed throughout the Roman Empire?" AJA 43 (1939): 601-17; Paul Zanker, Provinzielle Kaiser-portrüii. Zur Rezeption der Selbstdarstettung des Princeps (Munich: Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1983); and idem» TiwAnvtfrti/JpFjfi^ei, 297-3

49. See Taut us, Hist, 3.36 and 4.67, See also Suetonius, Tib. 58; and Codex Theo, 9.44» which gives those persons who lice for sanctuary to a slatuc of the emperor ten assured days of security,

50. Pronto, Ad. M. Cae$> 412.4 (trans. [.CI. 207), cited both in Msnei; hnperhd Rom^ 54, and in I on an, The Gods of Ancient Same, 1.36, Note that later (Christian emperors promulgated an edict that prohibited imperial images from be ing excessively beautiful, reserving such glory for representations of the divinity, Codex Theo. 15.4.1.

51. Sec Codex Theo. 9.40,17, which authorizes damnatio in the case of Eutropius so that such ¡linages may riot pollute the vision of those who see Lheiti; and Eisner* Imperial Ra?ne,

22—23, On the practice of damnatio memoriae in ¿it and epigraphy see Eric Vainer, ed,, from Calignia tif Constaritinc Tyranny and Trartsforrrtütiori in fitfmaP! Portraiture (Atlanta: Mich ad C. Carlos Museum, 2000 )r

?2r Justin, i Apol 17 (trans. ANF l;l6£)r See i^ul Cöiby Kinney, "The Rabin and the Coin ftxrtrait [Made 1215k I6): Rigorism Manqu^/fll 112 (1993): 629-44.

53. lertullian, Apol 28-35 passim.

55. Minucius Felix, Off. 29.5.

57. Josephus, 2.9.2-3 {169-174); compare Awf. 33.32-26; 55-57. On the standards with images of the emperor see Cecil Roth, ,LAn Ordinance against Images in Jerusalem,*5 UTR 49 (1956): 169-76] and Carl I I- Kraelmg, "The Episode of the Roman Standards at Jerusalem" UTR 35 (1942), 263-89. Al» see Tacitus, Ann. 3,36; and Hist 4.62 as sources on (he Roman standards.

58. J bid. Bj. 2.10.1 3; compare Arjf. 1B.B.2-9, fhe text in ÜL/, speaks of more than one statue, while the account in ArjJ. mentions only one.

60. 'Lbscfta, 'Abodah Zarah 5,1; Palestinian Talmud, 'Abodnh Zarah 3,1 (42b); Babylonian Talmud, 'Abodah Zarah 40b-41a. These texts lie cited i:i Boiversock, '[in per Lai Cull:" nnr 25—27, and referenced to Ephraim E. Urbach, "'Rabbinical Laws of Idolatry in the Second and Third Centuries in Light of Archaeological and Historical Facts,"* IE] 9 (1959): 149-65 and 229-43, esp. 152-53 and 238-39. Also see the more recent work of Gerald. JL Blidstein, Yohanan, Idolatry and Public Privilege," J.S/ S (1974): 154-61.

61. J lippoJytus, Ref. 9.26. L. This text .is noted by Finney KRabbi and Coin "636.

62. Cyprian, Ep. 61.2.2, trans. Graeme Clarke, The Letters of St. Cyprian, vol. 2. ACW 46 (New York\ Newman, Ii 84), 93, See also i dement 45:fr -7: 'JertulJian, Seorp. 8.7; and Idol. IS, 10; Cyprian, F(Jrc. 2, 11; and Ep. 50,5,Li anil 67,S.2 and Laps, 19; Jerome, Expt. Dan, 3.18; Chrysoistom, 4,6 and 5.1 4j Gregory of Nazianzus, Or. itaf. 74.

63- See Eusebius, Vit Const, 4,60 and 71; compare also I he Arian historian Philoslorgius, Hin. 3.1, tiCS (19721, 28, who claimed that Christians prayed to t Konstantine as to a god. Philostorgius is nuted in BowersocK Trope rial Cult" 181.

64. Husebiufc Vit G)riir. 4_ k 5 (trans. NPNH I compare 3,3. I.'Oraoge doubts that Constantine's portraits actually were shown in this position, with arms upraised, based on the coin images, but rather only looking heavenward; Apotheosis 93-94.

65, On the cessation of sacrifices, see Coder, Theo. 16,10,2; Eusebius, Vit. Const. 4.25.

66- Bowersock, "Imperial Cult."1 18267. Aihanasius, C Ar. 3,233 [NFNF 4 396).

W, Basil, spir Sana. 18,45 (trans, NFNF 8;47). This text ii discussed again in chap. 4- On the other hand, Cyril of Jerusalem, Cfif. 12.5, argues that since the material image of the emperor is honored, why not so much more the rational image of God (the human being)?

69. Included in the Acts of the Seventh Ecumenical Council: Man si, Sacrorum coneüiorum rtfliu etampHisima collectio (Florence, 1759-1798) 12.1013-15 (trans. NPNP 14:535).

70. Theodore the Studite, Ref. 2.11,13.

71. See Ernst Kitzinger, "The Cult of the Image before konoclasm; DOP 8 (1954): 116-18.

72-See more discussion of the visual portrayal of gods in chap. 3.

73. See discussion in chap. I.

74. Th< > mas Mat hews h as argued that pa nel pa in [ ings o f the godls were also | iroduced, son ie with sliding diwrs, and were the forerunners of icons, particularly because of their composition (front facing and half or fill I length). See Thomas K Mathews, The Clash of Cads: A Re interpretation of Early Christian Art, rev. ed. (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1999), 178-82.

75. Dlo Chrysostom, Dei cogn. 44—^46, Compare this reticence about innovation to the later Chri a n i cons of the sa i n ts (chap, 6),

76- Pbilosotralus, Vit. ApotL 6.19.

77. KLsner discussed the conflict between omnipresence and spatially localized divinity in ancient polytheism^ using the example oft hi.- Ephu.sian Artemis, Imperial Home, 204—5.

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