As art historians have noted, the pattern of Alexander's elevation was borrowed for subsequent rulers, in particular certain Roman emperors who, like the heroes of mythology, were seen as acting with divine guidance in life and undergoing apotheosis or deification after death (Julius Caesar or Domitian,for example). And as these mortals were elevated to the level of the semidivine or divine, they acquired a particular type of portrait image that transfigured even the plainest visage into one of striking beauty The coin portraits of Julius Caesar before and after his death are a case in point. While the realism of the Republican style guided his portraits in life, after death he was granted a youthful beardless face and an abundance of long, curling hair, often held back with a fillet or a diadem surmounted by a comet—the sign of his elevation to the rank of a god." This affiliation with a Hellenistic prototype (Alexander) also drew upon an actual divine image, the portrayal of Apollo or the sun god, Sol, who served as a model for many of the coin portraits of later emperors, including Constantine 1 (see fig. 41 > p, 68). The heavenward turn of the eyes suggested both pious affiliation with the upper world and transcendence of mundane or earthly matters.
As discussed above, emperors such as Antinoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, however, dropped Apollo in favor of a different model—the facial features of Jupiter or Serapis with full beard and abundant hair (fig. 26)™ According to scholars, these emperors chose to project the maturity of age and to appeal more majestic and wise than beautiful and heroic. In his book The Mask of Socrates t Paul Zanker writes that the male population of the Empire adopted a new style during the second century (a "classical face11) and that it was Hadrian's appearance with a beard that marked the turning point,JL Imperial portraits that reflect this mtmf-'-' d-vj
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