Face To Face

. V 11 ii j I ht ews i id Li i -.j, .L.i 11 i. 1 nothing l Kl . uv t the O ne- who is c ' er ill liiitigi, ild thi in 111 r'-i111 mak r 111 i mwai permitted to enjoy the iiphts of citiien& hip Fur nrilhfr pairtlcr nor image maker istwj n th i state, 11 lc l.m e* p 11 ing .i. such from rit that there might be no pnrt cxtlbrlhe uon& tructloTi o i mag s -and ai i ' i i .li .1l l-v c ll attc nl 01 of foolis h per > pic. and that J raps down the eye* of the suui from God to earl h There .li...

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Ancient Christian Writers A ri H s sin r y American Journal of Archaeology An te- Nicene Fathers Aufstieg und Niedergang der r mischen Welt Artt Religion, ftnti Theotogieal Studies Biblical Archaeology Review B bte Review Bullet in Acad mie Royale de Belgique Corpus (Jiristlanorum serie* latina Die griechischen durisiltehen Schrifatefler I Jarvard Dissertations in lit lici n Jou ma t of Eariy Ch ristictn Stud rri Jou rati i for the Study of Judai > n Supplements to the journal for she Study...

FAC r TO FA r

Saint Hippolytusn torn apart by wild horses like h inamesake in Greek mythology, 11 graphit and gory delail A. va l bears arc ntatlon 111 this I m r - id cent, on which varied colors, set pui the w hole outrage, while o er Lhe lotnb are J1 r- - dm show the vivid sightthe dragged man's bleeding limbs, I saw (here the and ited rocks oh best cd fathers, and the purple marks on 1 h brambJes. hand skilled .11 reproducing the protn thicket alio portrayed I hi rednesi oi the blood wilh vermillion...

Christolqgy Salvation and the Role of the Image

Eusebius s letter to Constantia was found (as noted above) in the iconoclastic floriUgium dated to 754. Its appearance there required its refutation during the sixth session of the Seventh Ecu Ellen ical Council (787), when the definition (hows) of the prior iconoclastic council was refuted point by point. When they came to Eusebeuss letter, they introduced it as a product of a defender of Arius, ail opponent of the holy Council of Nicaea,'1 someone having given himself up to a base mind, and...

The Philosophical Argument in the First Four Centuries CE

We have seen how the early Christian writers cited the views of ancient poets and philosophers is being in general harmony with Christian teaching on rlie invisibility of God and the vanity of the idols. The previous passage from Cicero 5 treatise TV Nitttifit Deo rum partially summarizes his teaching about the gods in one of the three main philosophical schools the Epicureans the Stoicsn and the Academics, In religious matters, Cicero generally sides with the Stoics, who traditionally objected...

The Invisible God and the Visible Image

AROV ND THE TV RN of the third century, just before the earliest known date that Roman Christians began to adorn the walls of their burial plates (with figurative art), a professional advocate and North African Christian convert, Marcus Minucius Felix, summarized a (probably fictional) debate between a Christian named Octavius and a polytheist named Caecilius. The dispute was over the credibility, morality, and value of Christian faith> and, although at the end Caecilius is converted, he...

Jesus1 Variant and Changing Appearances in

Although later (Rv antinc and early medieval) representations of lesus have a remarkable degree of consistency, the earliest artistic portrayals of Christ (in the third and fourth centuries) show significant inconsistency Sometimes Christ appears as youth led and beardless, some times as older, with full beard. Of course* he is also shown or symbolized) through the familiar visual metaphors of shepherd, lamb, or even fisher. One possible explanation for these varying presentations is that it...

Philosopher and Ruler The Bearded Type

Despite the preponderance of early narrative portrayals of Jesus as a beardless and beautiful youth, in at least some rare early examples, including the fourth-century plaque in Rome's Museo Nazi on ale alle Terme (fig. 61), Christ also appears in the guise of the philosopher, with ful 1 bea rd and bare ch est (he h as n o tun ic o r u n de rga rme nt, but on ly th e pallium draped over his left shoulder the garb of an itinerant intellectual) and holding a scroll His right hand makes a gesture...

Info

Plu-LeJ i n1 either silU- mf Ihl irnd i when prayers were *> t't'cred to the depicted saint. Oi l.' such scene is illustrated in he fifth-century fresco from j iamb in the Cliii.L.nmh of n Gennaro in .iples (fig. AllCJl tier freS-Uil L L I I _H LillcJLC HTlh lihoiVK lh(.L bllS-t if A fTlfl.n in pThlVTr flunked by iwn til andlcs md blinding under a garland (cither side of his head is the Legend li ie Proilulus.1 This p rlu .il.ir irr. demon it rates the way funerari portrait cou d lake tin the...

Select Bibliography

Ore fijinaifcffffjin'r von Neapel. Leipzig Hiersemann, 1936. Anne, DtiYLd IE. Heracles and Christ Heracles Imagery in the Christology of Early Christian-i.ly. In Greeks, Romans, and Christians Estays in Honor of Abraham J. Malhetbe. Edited by > . IIa Ich el al., 3-19. Minneapolis Fortress Press 1990, Harber, Charles. Figure and Likeness On the Limits of Representation in Byzantine Icortodasm, Princeton Princeton Univ. Press, 1002. Heard, Mary, John North, and Simon Price. The...

Seeing God and Living

Theophilus, a late second-century bishop of Antioch, attacked pagan idolatry and expounded his views on the visibility of God in his apology Tp Autolysis (his only certain surviving writing . In this work, Theophilus begins by setting out thc occasion of thc dialogue, Autolycus has boasted of his gods of wood and stone, carved or cast, and scornfully asked Theolophilus to show me ytw god.'* In response, Theophilus impugns Autolycus s character, saying that God 15 seen only by those who are pure...

The Invisible Cod And The Visible [mace

Clement) as well as Paul's address to the Athenians when he criticized the Stoics for their inconsistency regarding the images of the gods. Although they scoff at the building of shrines, they continue to act in a traditional manner in other respects Moreover, it is a doctrine oFZeno's not to build temples of he gotk, because a temple not worth much is. also not sacred, and no work of builders or mediajiLcs is worth much. The Stoics* while applauding this as correct, attend Lhc mysteries in...

Visual Art Portraits and Idolatry

L. t lippolytus, Ref 9.12 l.tber Amfc 17. 2. The term catacomb comes from an ancient reference to the topography of the land near the site of a shrine for lJeter and Paul near the Basilica of San Sebastiano, not far from the area of the Callistus cemetery, containing abandoned possolana or tufo quarries that may have made It easier to construct the subterranean (hafts and tunnels of the catacombs (adtatotum-hni is derived front the f.ieek kata twnrtirsand roughly means near the hollows1')....

Portraits of the Incarnate

1, Compare Matt 11 27 and Luke 10 22. 2, Note Paulinus of Nolans description of his ipsc mosaic, however, and the frequent use of t he hi mb as t he sym bol of Ch rist i n 1 he rt of t lie fou ri h i o si t h ccnt ries, Al the end of the sev-ent h ccn ury ( ca. 90), i he eight y-sccond canon of the Cou ne il of Trullo ( t he Qu ijiiscxt Cou nci L Mansi L 11.977 SO) finally discourages the use of the lamb as a symbol far Christ .-once the human image of the savior was more effective in...

Portrayals of God and the Trinity in Visual Art of the Third and Fourth Centuries

Although the question of God's visibility to the human eye was a subject of much discussion by theologians, almost no surviving and parallel arguments address the related impossibility of representing God (the Father), the pre-incarnate Word, or the Trinity in visual art. Presumably, theologians who discussed the invisibility of God assumed their arguments to preclude artistic portrayal in any form but particularly as showing God with human features. In other words, the possibility may simply...

Specific Examples of Holy Portraits

O W Si'V V V V V V O S C b O V C V C s C C i C v v v vC vC v v wvC la vC'C s v'C v v Fig. 91. Gold-glass portrait of Petti* arnj Rayl,Vaticun Mu ivm,Vatican City Thti InternatiortaJ Catacomb Society Photo Eite le B-ettman), Epiphamus's condemnation of them by name indicates that portraits of Peter, John, and Haul were the earliest recognizable saints' portraits to appear in Christian art. Rusebius likewise had mentioned seeing portraits of Peter and Paul, painted in colors, which were being...

Christology and the Image of Christ in Ravenna

The variations of )esus iconography within a single building or icono-graphic program continued in the next centuries, particularly in Ravenna, which for a short time was capital of the Roman Empire in the West. From the mid-fifth to the early sixth centuries, persons with different politteal and theological affiliations constructed a group of important buildings in three subsequent stages. The first was the era from 402 to 493 c.e., when the city became the Western capital under the Catholic...

Traditions and Legends regarding Jesus Appearance

Other than the cryptic allusions to Jesus' physical appearance in Justin or in Origen (who cited the text of Isaiah as if it were historically descriptive), only a few references to eyewitness descriptions of Jesus' appearance occur in the literature. On the other hand, traditions that actual portraits were made from life1' were more widely known. Among the rare textual witnesses is a letter supposedly written bya fictitious governor of Judea, Pubis lis Lentulus, to the h< Roman People and...

Jesus as Savior and Healer The Beautiful Youth

Vatcancity

Jiyii i A AiA jiyi i. - Ji iyiji- i F ii yf *iff J 'str S r si, y liBil IF ,stii iif y 'tjr't f ip y Hjrty KJF'I 1 fyr y tyr H P Y V1 sf V y V 'Sy' V V V V hjr1 i ar h F vT Silii Hgr Kjr npnjr n JTyr f These issues lay right at the heart of the development of Christian art that first emphasized Jesus' work on earth, as a savior who performed certain deeds. These deeds, as they were represented in visual art, were directly related to specific textual narratives. The art of the early fourth...

Image and Portrait in Roman Culture and Religion

LCI 9 26 3-65) r Almost the whole of Hook 33 is dedicated to the visu lI arts and a lis)ingof famous artistsh including the earliest Greek portrait painlers, Setj for instancy 35-36, especially 93-99 On the painter Aristides, who w > the first to depict the mind and express the feelings of his model 3. 'lutarch, Alex. I (trans. LCL 7 225). For aiiot her example oflanguage portraiture, with comparison to classical statuary, sec Lucian, Pro imag. and hang. 4....

Bv I 111 ans 111rial ion of jli jula ppa ivi I ly hii1 i i1 Li if l rcitti ji i if 1 lts

Had seriously underestimated lewish feelings about image1, ul foreign gods (on-r occupying rulers) in the r hol> places,'h Nevertheless, like fustin and 'liertullian, Joseph us look a conciliatory , 11 jpr< *iichh. 1 rsji 1 i1 1 I bal the Jewish rri lj --.a I Id l- eel or hi - i i h st lues uf t be emperors was not based on hatred or even di& respect for Rome and its rulers, bul on an understanding that they be officially granted (be freedom to abide b> heiro n religious laws, He...

Irt I ri [hLi hay a [he paintings Lni l their hungi 1 theii lionishmcnl ivin allow i K i e i hL i i 111 levup in ihern

In a letter w ritten to his friend Severus, Paulinus discusses another case of interior church d coration lhal presented a different problem the appropriateness of including the portrait of .j living individual, 1 II' ha Learned that Severus adorned the baptistery he had constructed at Primulacum with portraits of Saint Martin of Tours died ,iLi7' as well as of Paulinus himself. Although, Paulinus argues, Martin's portrait is at ceplable for such .l impace, since he bore the imajje of I he...

The Transfigured Christ and the Two Natures Controversy

In addition to seeing the variations in Jesus' image based on his different roles savior and teacher versus judge and king , a key text of Scripture also points to a variation in the appearance of Jesus at the crucial moment of his transfiguration. Up on a high mountain, Jesus appeared to Peter, James, and John as Lransligured, his face shining like the sun and his clothes dazzling white Matt 17 1-8 and parallels , Origen pointed to this text as the proof that all persons were not equally able...

Refera lo the leachings of a ber of philosophers especially the

Pythagoreans and Stolcs, although he anchors his readings of them t h the basi tenets of ihc truth-loving' Pialo, to whom he rrlurn wilh jtrcat prediclability. And yer, he Plato and the uthers were nol only indehled to the leachingscontained in the I i gt c books of Moses, bul they ani ipaied . 111 thai would be proclaimed in C 111 i 1 i .a 11 Scripture. For ampie, Moses' prohibition of temples or altars in more than one place indicated thal he knew thal God could not be contained or circum-scr...

Early Portraits of the Saints and the Question of Likeness

Ai THE HUP.CH grew and became securely established, the threat of idolatry from the outside polytheism diminished along with Christian reticence about making portraits of holy persons. By the beginning of the fifth century, portraiture was becoming a dominant type of iconography and, while narrative art continued to be produced tor illuminated books or for decorative programs on church walls, saints' likenesses were everywhere, often as relatively inexpensive items that might be produced. The...

The Earliest Examples and Types of Christian Visual Art Church Regulation

Dura Baptistery Yale

Obviously, such definitions and regulations only make sense for a time when Christian images were being produced in enough quantity to make these policies necessary. As we have seen, Christian writers of the second and early third centuries seem unaware of any significant amount or type of Christian art worthy of condemnation. Their objections were aimed at the art of others, pagans or perhaps Christian heretics, and not at their own coreligionists. The warnings against idolatry were warnings...

Early Christian Views of Visual Art Historical Analyses

Jesus Healing Sarcophagus

Y- gt t . . . - ftr-. ftft ftyn ftJ- a H jr. _ft . - , . ' jTk ft y y-. ft i ft ft ft ' ft h it i .- k v V i ji gt . i w i ji '- j' Fig. 5. Jonah at nest Scene fnonr Jonah cycle, Catacomb of CallistushRome The IntematiortaJ Catacomb Soticty Photffi Estdle Bnetttnani . Fig. i gt , Mqsss Striking the wk in the wilderness Caticoirb of Cal istuSvRorne The International Catacomb Society. Photo Estelle Brettrnan , The very fact that we may .study Christian art from the turn of the third century is...

Art and Idolatry in the Early Third Century Christian Writings

Because Tertulliar, ca, 200 was deeply concerned about the problem of Christians being ensnared in a polytheistic culture, his treatise On Idolatry extends the definition of idolatry far beyond anything to do specifically with pictorial art. For Tertullian, idolatrous practices include preoccupation with the way one dresses, the foods one eats, or the pursuit of sexual pleasures or material wealth all things that humans mistakenly lake for having intrinsic value and that they honor more than...

Funerary Portraits

Ancient Egyptian Scallop Shell Design

-_r v v v v v v v v i v v vs v ._, . sx syv yy v-v -s '-J v v v v j h 5 v '-J v v v v v s - i jT.j- -.y v v l As we have seen, portraits of living people, from Roman emperors to more ordinary persons, usually had a pract calas well as an aesthetic function. They honored, enhanced, and even shaped the character and reputations of their models while preserving evidence of their existence. The funerary portrait, by contrast, was a special kind of image, usually produced after death but also...

Terra Catacombe Meaning

Early Christian Funerary Art

FOR THE MOST PART, existing examples of Christian visual art come from Rome and date to the beginning of the third century c.e gt , a time when Roman Christians weTe enjoying a brief respite from the widespread but sporadic persecutions they had suffered during the reign of Marcus Aurelius 160-180 . During the relatively tolerant reign of Emperor Commodus ISO-192 , the church acquired land outside the city walls-, on the Via Appia Antica, for use as a burial ground, allowing them to inter...