Contents

Abbreviations xi

Introduction 1

1. The Revelation of the Trinity 7

1. Revelation, Creation, and Salvation 7

2. The Revelation of the Trinity through its Works 9

2. Thomas' Exposition of Speculative Trinitarian Theology 18

1. Biblical Exegesis and Trinitarian Theology 18

2. The Aim of Speculative Trinitarian Theology 22

(a) The Prerogatives of the Faith 22

(b) The Rejection of Rationalism 23

(c) Understanding the Faith 26

(d) Why Investigate Notions, Relations, and Properties? 31

3. The Structure of Thomas' Treatise on the Triune God 36

1. St Thomas: Various Accounts of the Mystery of the Trinity 36

2. The Plan of the Trinitarian Treatise in the Summa Theologiae 39

(a) Immanent and Economic Trinity 40

(b) The Essence and the Distinction of Persons:

the Common and the 'Proper' 44

(c) The Game Plan of the Treatise on the Trinity 48

4. The Processions 51

1. The Word'Procession' 52

2. Action, the Source of Relation 53

3. The Problems of Arianism and of Sabellianism 55

4. A Procession which is the Generation of the Word 57

5. A Different Procession, which is that of Love 62

6. The Order of the Trinitarian Processions 69

7. The Cycle of the Trinitarian Processions 72

8. 'Notional' Action 74

5. Relations 78

1. Elements of the Patristic Teaching on Relation 79

2. Real Relations in God 84

3. The Being of Divine Relations 89

4. Relative Opposition: Paternity, Filiation, Spiration, and Procession 96

(a) Relative Opposition 96

(b) Paternity, Filiation, Spiration, Procession 99

6. The Person 103

1. What is a Person? 104

2. Person and Analogy 107

3. Correlations in the Greek and Latin Terminology 111

4. Subsistent Relations 114

5. Relation the Heart of Trinitarian Theology 120

7. Trinitarian Monotheism 128

1. Personal Plurality in the Triune God 128

2. The Theological Terminology of Plurality 132

3. A Transcendental Multiplicity 137

4. The Consubstantiality of the Persons 141

5. Person and Essence: A Problem Raised by Joachim of Fiore 145

6. The Word God 148

8. The Person of the Father 151

1. The Name Which Fits Best: Father 153

2. The Father: Principle and Source 156

3. The Paternity of the Father: Father of the Son and Father of his Creatures 160

(a) The Analogous Network of the Name 'Father' 160

(b) The Name 'Father': the Person of the Father and the Trinity 163

4. Unbegottenness: The Unengendered Father 168

5. From Father to Father 172

9. The Person of the Son 176

1. Studying the Personal Property of the Son 176

2. Studies in the Analogy of the Word: Anthropology and Trinitarian Theology 180

3. The Son, Word of God 185

4. The Word, Wisdom, and Splendour of the Father 192

5. The Word, Creation, and the Economy: the Father Acts through his Son 195

6. The Word Discloses and Reveals the Father 201

7. The Son Gives Us a Share in his Sonship 204

8. The Word, Image of the Father 209

9. Image of the Father, First-Born of Creation 214

10. The Person of the Holy Spirit 219

1. The Name'Holy Spirit' 220

2. The Holy Spirit is Love in Person 225

3. The Mutual Love of Father and Son 233

4. Creative Love: The Universal Operation of the Holy Spirit 245

5. The Gift of the Father and the Son 249

6. The Holy Spirit's Gifts to Human Beings 258

11. The Holy Spirit Proceeds from the Father and from the Son 269

1. The Doctrinal Weight of the Holy Spirit's Procession a Patre and a Filio 269

2. Biblical and Patristic Documentation 272

3. The Terminology: The Spirit 'Proceeds' from the

Father and the Son 280

4. The Councils and the Problem of Adding to the Symbol 282

5. Theoretical Arguments 285

(a) Distinction by Relative Opposition 285

(b) Love and the Word 286

(c) The Trinitarian Order 288

6. Balancing Out the Nuances: The Distinction and the

Unity of Father and Son 289

7. The Attitude to the Eastern Orthodox 294

12. The Reciprocal Interiority of the Divine Persons 298

1. The Patristic Legacy 298

2. A Synthesis of Trinitarian Doctrine 302

(a) The Essential Unity of the Three Persons: Consubstantiality 303

(b) Relations 304

(c) Procession 306

3. Theology and Economy 308

13. Appropriation 312

1. The Origins of the Idea of Appropriation 313

2. The Bases for Appropriation 319

(a) The Analyses of Saint Bonaventure and Saint Albert 319

(b) Thomas' View 322

3. Disclosing the Persons 326

4. The Regions in which Appropriation Applies 331

5. The Advantages and Limitations of Appropriation 336

14. Trinitarian Creation and Action 338

1. The Father Creates and Achieves All Things Through

His Son and by His Spirit 338

2. The 'Efficacy' of the Trinitarian Processions 343

3. The Question of the 'Role Proper' to Each of the Persons 347

4. The Persons' Distinct Modes of Action and their Unity in Action 349

5. Trinity and Creation: The Meaning of the Plural 356

6. The Trinitarian Structure of the Economy 357 15. Missions 360

1. Context and Format of the Question about Divine Missions 361

2. The Theory of Mission 363

(a) Mission 364

(b) Mission, Temporal Procession, and Donation 368

(c) The Person who Sends 370

3. The 'Invisible' Mission: The Gift of the Spirit and the

Son to the Saints 372

(a) Initial Clarifications 373

(b) The Seal of Son and Holy Spirit 375

(c) God's Presence as Known and Loved 379

(d) The Gifts of the Son and Holy Spirit: Two Inseparable and Distinct Missions 387

(e) Experiencing the Divine Persons of Son and Holy Spirit 392

4. The Image of the Trinity 395

5. Our Relation to each Divine Person in Grace: Objective Union 402

6. The 'Visible' Missions of the Son and Holy Spirit 404

Conclusion 413

Bibliography Name Index

Subject Index

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