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The Spinoza Conversations Between Lessing and Jacobi

According to Jacobi's report, his conversations with Lessing31 began when he showed the author of Nathan the Wise Goethe's unpublished poem Prometheus. 32 Since this poem is important for the argument to follow, the English translation is here cited in full. At this point in the conversation, Jacobi unfolds his interpretation of Spinoza's philosophy, asserting that it denies free will, divine providence, and the personal God. Lessing, after hearing Jacobi's interpretation, speaks out again Their conversation then shifts to the question of freedom. Here too we find an interesting exchange of opinions. Jacobi asserts that the most important concept is that of final cause (Endursache). For if there were no final cause, we could not help, in his opinion, denying freedom and becoming fatalists. If fatalism is right, moreover, the thinking faculty can do nothing but observe. Jacobi If you will just jump onto this springboard from which I am launched . . . , that's all you need to do....

The conversation

On the surface, the controversy swirled around the orthodox theological doctrines of God and free will, but it also had a deep undertow that would pull the conversation in an unchartered direction - toward the edge of nothingness. It all began in a conversation prompted by Goethe's poem Prometheus. It did not take long for Spinoza's name to be uttered. As Jacobi recounted the conversation, Lessing had admitted, The point of view from which the poem is treated is my own point of view The orthodox concepts of the Divinity are no longer for me I cannot stomach them. Hen kaipan One and All I know of nothing else. That is also the direction of the poem, and I must confess that I like it very much. Jacobi replied, Then you must be pretty well in agreement with Spinoza. Lessing rejoined, If I am to name myself after anyone, I know of nobody else. Interrupted, they continued the conversation the next morning. Lessing began, I have come to talk to you about my hen kai pan. Yesterday you were...

The Beginning of the Pantheismusstreit

On 15 February 1781, when he died at the age of fifty-two, Lessing left behind a great number of fragments and unfinished manuscripts. Among them, those in the fields of theology and philosophy were of special value. When his younger brother Karl edited and published them after a few years in several volumes of Lessing's collected works,14 people were amazed at the breadth and depth of his interests in theology and philosophy of religion. To the surprise of the general public, however, Jacobi, who had held private conversations with Lessing during the last years of his life, imputed to him the disgrace of being a Spinozist, though no clear avowal of Spinozism could be found In response to Mendelssohn's request for greater detail of his conversations with Lessing, Jacobi sent the Jewish philosopher, by way of Elise as before, a minute report of about thirty-six pages in quartos on 4 November 1783. This report, however, contained such unexpected material that Mendelssohn was first...

Lessings Spinozism

The world and one that considerably shook the self-confidence of the German Enlightenment. 8 As mentioned above, the pantheism controversy, which is so important for the history of modern German philosophy, originated in the Spinoza controversy that began soon after Lessing's death between Mendelssohn and Jacobi over Lessing's theological and or religious-philosophical convictions. The immediate cause was that Jacobi, soon after Lessing's death, disclosed the content of private conversations he had held with Lessing during his last years. According to what Jacobi alleged in his Concerning the Doctrine of Spinoza, in Letters to Herr Moses Mendelssohn ( ber die Lehre des Spinoza in Briefen an den Herrn Moses Mendelssohn), Lessing confided to him his secret allegiance to Spinozism. Hence the focus of the dispute between Mendelssohn and Jacobi was Lessing's alleged Spinozism. The burning question was that of how Lessing's Spinozism should be interpreted.9 The rationale for this...

Lessings Hen Kai

So far, we have gained some idea of the nature of the philosophical conversations between Lessing and Jacobi, conversations which, when their content was disclosed, gave rise almost immediately to the Spinoza controversy between Mendelssohn and Jacobi and, eventually, to the pantheism controversy that engaged almost all the best minds of late eighteenth-century Germany. We have seen that the controversy between Mendelssohn the Jewish philosopher and Jacobi the poet-philosopher of Goethe's era (Philosophund Literat der Goethezeit)178 is, in the last analysis, a dispute between two different interpretations of Lessing's worldview Mendelssohn depicts Lessing as a representative of a rational theism similar to his own and identifies his worldview as one of refined pantheism. Jacobi, on the other hand, portrays this rational theism as nothing more than an exoteric veil (eine exoterischeH tte) for Lessing's esoteric Spinozism. Seen in this light, the dispute can be said to center on the...

Miracles Versus Science

I told Craig that his explanation reminded me of a conversation I had several years earlier with J. P Moreland, the noted philosopher who wrote Christianity and the Nature of Science. He used an illustration of the law of gravity, which says that if you drop an object, it will fall to the earth. But, he said, if an apple falls from a tree and you reach out to catch it before it hits the ground, you're not violating or negating the law of gravity you're merely intervening.

Transformative Events

These events played an important role in the development of Kierkegaard's understanding of Christianity, the ecclesiastical-political establishment of the time, and his own personal life in relation to the common folk of Copenhagen, with whom he was accustomed to enjoy daily conversations on his habitual walks around town.73

Secondary and university education

Turning to the secondary schools and the teaching of Latin, the similarities between Catholic, Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican institutions appear to significantly outweigh the differences. In 1650, all of these institutions shared a similar humanist heritage from the Schulordnungen or Kirchenordnungen of Philipp MelanchthontoJean Sturm's model gymnasium in Strasbourg, to John Calvin's schools in Geneva and Zwingli's in Zurich - all of which, in turn, drew on the methods established by the Brothers of the Common Life at the end of the fifteenth century. In addition, the Jesuits' Ratio Studiorum (1599) owed much to the modus parisiensis developed within the University of Paris at the beginning of the sixteenth century. On both sides of the confessional boundary one finds the same organization of studies by successive classes, lessons (praelectiones), and exercises (questions, debates, prose imitations) the same use of classical antiquity, in both its rhetoric and its ideals of...

The fate of the imagination in modernity

'A mere metaphor', 'an empty symbol', 'just a myth' are phrases that we often hear in conversation, journalism or political rhetoric. They signal the hostility of public discourse in our culture to imaginative truth. These tell-tale phrases disparage the figurative aspects of language and suggest that they are furthest removed from its truth-bearing aspects. They seem to imply that there is an alternative linguistic repertoire available to us a more correct, more precise and somehow 'straight' kind of language. This supposed alternative is sometimes called 'the literal truth', 'the honest truth', 'plain prose' or 'factual language'. With wearisome monotony politicians insist that their policies are 'perfectly clear' and we know that the more politicians protest that they have made it perfectly clear, are making it perfectly clear and will continue to make it perfectly clear, the more completely opaque and indeed dubiously murky 'it' really is.

Josephs High Position

Then the conversation turned to the dream. Joseph advised the king to start planning for years of famine ahead. He informed him that the famine would affect not only Egypt but the neighboring countries as well. The king offered him a high position. Joseph asked to be made controller of the granaries, so that he could guard the nation's harvest and thereby safeguard it during the anticipated drought. By this Joseph did not mean to seize an opportunity or personal gain he merely wanted to rescue hungry nations for a personal gain he merely wanted to rescue hungry

Tillich and the Frankfurt School

Understanding Tillich's relationship with the Frankfurt theorists provides an important key to his writings on culture. The Frankfurt critique of kitsch, the prophetic status they granted to the artists, poets, and philosophers of the avant-garde, their distinctive blending of Marx and Freud, and their suspicions of the culture industry are all found in Tillich. They had all worked out their thinking on these matters in conversation with each other, and reached many of the same conclusions. Taken together, these elements of critical theory help to explain Tillich's dismissal of popular culture as material that deserves to be taken seriously for its religious content. His aversion toward popular culture was one constant in Tillich's theology of culture in both its early and later phases.

Thereof in the day of judgement

The word idle is used here metaphorically of the insincere, false, and worthless words spoken by the Pharisees who had just blasphemed the Holy Spirit by knowledgeably attributing the miracles Jesus performed to Satan's power, instead of acknowledging it was the Holy Spirit's power (CP V22-24, 31 -32). The Pharisees could never say anything good because their hearts were evil (CP V33-35). But Jesus' warning in V36-37 is directed to Christians too - everyone will be justified by their words (CP Eph 4 29-30 5 3-4 Col 3 8-9). Corrupt communication in Eph 4 29 refers to the spoken word. Corrupt means evil, rotten, unfit for use, worthless, bad. V30 teaches that the utterance of evil or worthless words offends (grieves) the Holy Spirit. Foolish Talking in 5 4 refers to talk that is both foolish and sinful. Jesting here means polished and witty speech as the instrument of sin - ribaldry (vulgar humour). Blasphemy in Col 3 8 means slander, detraction, speech injurious to another's good name....

Objection 1 Since Evil And Suffering Exist A Loving God Cannot

Kreeft, a Catholic also widely read by Protestants, has written more than forty books, including Love is Stronger than Death, Heaven the Heart's Deepest Longing, Prayer the Great Conversation, A Refutation of Moral Relativism, and Handbook of Christian Apologetics (with Ronald K. Tacelli). His whimsical imagination is especially evident in Between Heaven and Hell, which envisions C. S. Lewis, John I Kennedy, and Aldous Huxley, after death, arguing about Christ, and Socrates Meets Jesus, in which the ancient thinker becomes a Christian at Harvard Divinity School.

Secret Doctrine Taught by Jesus

This argumentation of Peter, therefore, had it even emanated from the apostle himself, instead of being a religious romance, as the author of Supernatural Religion calls it, would prove nothing whatever in favor of the identity of the God of the Jews, with the Father of Jesus. At best it would only demonstrate that Peter had remained from first to last an apostle of circumcision, a Jew faithful to his old law, and a defender of the Old Testament. This conversation proves, moreover, the weakness of the cause he defends, for we see in the apostle a man who, although in most intimate relations with Jesus, can furnish us nothing in the way of direct proof that he ever thought of teaching that the all-wise and all-good Paternity he preached was the morose and revengeful thunderer of Mount Sinai. But what the Homilies do prove, is again our assertion that there was a secret doctrine preached by Jesus to the few who were deemed worthy to become its recipients and custodians. And Peter said...

Phronesis in Gadamer Ricoeur and Bernstein

The idea that a concern with application co-determines understanding from the beginning is a hard concept to grasp. Twentieth-century people have been so educated to believe that understanding requires objectivity that to hear Gadamer say otherwise seems wrong. But it becomes clearer when we read his argument that understanding should be understood as conversation or dialogue where one understands another in light of one's own beginning point - one's history, social experience, and the questions and concerns that flow from them (Gadamer 1982 330-3). We understand texts and other communications by contrasting and comparing them to our own historically shaped practices, perspectives, and questions. Remove these from the understanding process and we lose our point of reference. Hence, Gadamer rehabilitated the role of prejudices (to be understood in the sense of pre-judgments shaped by one's traditions) in the understanding process. He rejected the Enlightenment, positivistic, and...

A guardian who had been a father to me more than most real fathers [Letters p53

It was in this group that Tolkien met C.S. Lewis and their friendship would become very strong. Tolkien would have an enormous effect of Lewis and vice versa. In fact, in a conversation that lasted until 4 am in the morning Tolkien and Chesterton another well known Christian writer and Oxford Academic helped in Lewis' conversion to Christianity.

Basel Libellus For John The Evangelist

Basel Libellus For John The Evangelist

What little there is of theological substance in my own contributions to this book is the result of others, who over the years have enriched my life with their writings and conversation and friendship. I am happy to say that many of them are contributors to this volume, and they will know who they are. In addition I must also thank - for various kinds of help and support, friendship and insight - Pamela Sue Anderson, Jeremy Carrette, Sarah Coakley, Elaine Graham, Fergus Kerr OP, Janet and Nicholas Lash, Rob MacSwain, Alison and John Milbank, Andrea and Paul Murray, George Newlands, John Sawyer, Paul Julian Smith, Janet Martin Soskice, Will Sweetman, Mark Vernon, Alison Webster and Alex Wright, Jane and Rowan Williams. There will be many I have forgotten, and though unnamed they too will know who they are, and I thank them all. Finally I must remember Andrew Ballantyne, not only for being there, but for being there with such quiet good sense and infinite patience.

Believing the Evidence in Scripture and Nature

Some people deny that they have an inner sense of God. But their awareness of God will often make itself evident in a time of personal crisis, when deep-seated convictions of the heart show themselves in outward words and deeds. Several years ago I was a passenger in a car with several friends, including a young woman who in conversation was firmly denying that she had any inner awareness of God's existence. Shortly thereafter the car hit a patch of ice and spun around in a complete circle at high speed. Before the car came to rest in a large snow bank (with no serious damage) this same woman could be heard distinctly calling out, Lord Jesus, please help us The rest of us looked at her in amazement when we realized that her agnosticism had been disproved by words from her own mouth.

The Interpretation Of Scripture

The above Orthodox scholars are deeply committed to the Orthodox tradition of faith and learning. While they come at the hermeneutical task from various angles, they share a theological outlook that is built on common foundations the centrality of the Church and its traditions, the unquestioned authority of the scriptures, profound respect for the Church Fathers, the inseparability of spiritual life and academic work, high concern for doctrinal truth, and disquiet over the disruptive impact of modern biblical studies. To proceed further, several things are necessary. The first is to establish a tradition of constructive scholarly conversation towards a commonly defined Orthodox hermeneutic. Another is to recognise that, despite the radicals and revisionists in modern biblical studies, there are many more biblical scholars, committed believers, and people of the Church who take very seriously the authority of scripture and the classic Christian tradition, and strive mightily to speak a...

Primordial Detective Story

To lay some groundwork, I started our conversation by going back to Darwin himself. His theory of evolution sought to explain how simple life forms could develop over long periods of time into increasingly complex creatures, I said. But that ignores the important issue of how life arose in the first place. What was Darwin's theory about that

Scriptures inspiration

These are the hermeneutical debates of evangelicals in the West, especially North America, and indeed they affect the lives and vocations of real people. But a second and more significant reality is the rise and spread of global Christianity. Well chronicled by Philip Jenkins and Andrew Walls among others, this expansion of communities with connections to ''evangelicals'' will have theological implications for their ecclesiastical culture. It is symptomatic of the current situation, however, that most sources cited in this essay are Western and even American. Partly that is due to the present author's limitations. Yet research coupled with help from colleagues in the World Evangelical Alliance theological list-serv did unearth some other resources. Much of the non-Western evangelical literature on Scripture, though, is not translated into English, is unavailable for ready Western distribution, or else it has not been definitive for the ''evangelical'' identity treated in academic...

From natural theology to philosophical theology

Wish to acknowledge that two complaints made against natural theology must be accepted. First, natural theology should not claim to operate with an account of pure, objective, ahistorical reason. No such reason exists. Second, natural theology should not offer a philosophical metaphysics as a way of mediating between faith and the world - such a mediating position is often taken, as in the work of John Cobb, by process thought.19 Natural theology is not a buffer between the Gospel and the world natural theology does not offer a philosophical context in which Christian and modern world views are brought into conversation.20 Nor, in the anthropological turn evident in some natural theology, am I here concerned with an account of the readiness of humanity to receive revelation.21 20. McFague's view in The Body of God also comes close to this view natural theology is the detection and articulation of congruencies between scientific and theological world views. For McFague, philosophy of...

Samaritans Purse to Baghdad

Mark Kelly, of the Southern Baptists' International Mission Board, also refused to deny there might be a spiritual component accompanying the aid, but indicated the primary focus would be relief. Conversations about spiritual things will come about as people ask about our faith, said Kelly. It's not going to be like what you might see in other countries where there's a preaching service outside clinics and things like that. Graham reinforced this idea, saying, We will offer relief to those who need it, with no strings attached. Sometimes, the best preaching we can do is simply being there with a cup of cold water, exhibiting Christ's spirit of serving others.

James Morrow The Towing Jehovah Saga34

Fr Ockham, and Sr Miriam know before they ram the supertanker into it while lost in a fog bank what their cargo will be. When the crew finally sees God's corpse floating face-up in the ocean, they are forced, quite suddenly, to make sense of a world with a dead God. There are a variety of reactions, and they hit in waves. The first wave is characterized by a growing sense of a strange and unprecedented freedom. Neil Weisinger contemplates harpooning his commanding officer as the thought steals over him that God is really gone, or as he says, No God, no rules, no eyes on us. As more time passes, he slides further into this conviction and tells Fr Ockham, The cat's away, Tommy. I can think any damn thought I want. I can think about picking up a Black and Decker needle gun and drilling my Aunt Sarah's eyes out. I'm free, Tommy. 35 Two weeks after their first contact with the corpse, Captain Van Horne notes in his diary that there has been a steep increase in brawls, graffiti, petty...

Natural Law Meets Judith Butler

The present chapter appears in a volume called Queer Theology. Perhaps the most prominent theorist of queerness is Judith Butler. To put Judith Butler into conversation with Aquinas seems a doomed encounter between abstract stereotypes. He's a realist she's not. But I use seems in the way that Thomas does what seems to be the case is always the objection that Thomas disputes.

Franco Ferrucci The Life of God as Told by Himself 1996

In God's estimation, Moses was alienating people from their freedom. It is not true that I want to destroy the iniquitous, God said to him. I don't even know who the iniquitous are. 23 But in Moses' estimation, God hadn't a clue about what it is that human beings really need. And 1,200 years later, God still didn't, only it is Jesus who upbraids him this time. Jesus, in Ferrucci's world, is God's natural son - as God in spiritual form had made love to his mother before she married an old carpenter. Following their tryst, God disappeared, then returned 30 years later as one of a band of peripatetic Athenian philosophers to check up on this son he'd heard of through rumors. Listening to Jesus preach for the first time, God was filled with happiness, and he remarked that he had never heard anything so beautiful and so convincing before. 24 I realized that I wanted to believe in the Christ, I the atheistic God. 25 It was God in the guise of a Greek philosopher, it turns out, who rented...

Since Miracles Contradict Science They Cannot Be True

I knew from my conversation with agnostic Charles Templeton that he had shed his belief in miracles many years ago. Our early forefathers sought within the limits of their experience to interpret life's imponderables, usually attributing the inexplicable to the intervention of one or more of their gods, demi-deities, and evil spirits, he wrote. But surely it is time to have done with primitive speculation and superstition and look at life in rational terms. 3

Delving Beneath The Surface

Then there was the time I had a conversation about God with a guy in the Pacific Northwest. He was raising all kinds of intellectual issues. But when we got beneath that, it turned out he didn't want to believe in God because he didn't want to sell his topless bar. The money was too good and he was having too much fun making it.

The Sun as an Equivocal Cause

The sand is hot and dry, and so is the sun. It's quite all right to talk that way, but our interest now is in acquiring knowledge about the remote sun on the basis of our familiarity with some of its local effects, not in making conversation on the beach. If we understand the natures of the effected heat and dryness in the sand, then perhaps the first step toward learning about the nature of their agent cause on that basis is to understand that simply in virtue of the structure of agent causation those effects must somehow be fundamentally like their cause, in the sense that there must be some theoretically discoverable way in which the forms of heat and dryness are also in the sun. But then, surely, the very next step toward learning in this way about the nature of the sun as a heating and drying agent is to recognize that since the sun and the sand are not in the same species and so do not share the same ratio, the forms of heat and of dryness must be realized differently in the...

Conclusion For Asian Feminist Theology

Feminist theologians in the South welcome opportunities for dialogue and seek solidarity with women in the North because feminist struggles are increasingly interconnected and global. They have also engaged in crosscultural conversation with women theologians from racial minorities in North America. With passion and compassion, they continue to articulate a new theological voice full of hope and joy, with reverence for life and respect for all things. Integrating theory and praxis, their political theology is rooted in the local, but connected to the global.

Naipauls Among the Believers and Beyond Belief

As we have already noted, two of his travelogues deal with his perceptions of Islam. Among the Believers An Islamic Journey describes his own successive impressions of Iran ('The Twin Revolutions'),343 Pakistan ('The Salt Hills of a Dream'),344 Malaysia ('The Primitive Faith')345 and, finally, Indonesia ('Usurpations').346 The author labels his conclusion 'Reprise The Society of Believers'.347 Naipaul is the anthropolgist of the word par excellence. He enjoys, and records, conversations with all whom he meets the conversation is the medium which conveys the message. Among the Believers was written between August 1979 and February 1981.348 In the light of the catastrophe which hit the USA on 11 September 2001, his concluding words have a raw prophetic quality and span the two decades between 1981 and 2001 with a terrible quiet urgency

Scene 2 Making A Choice

It was a rare opportunity to talk with the author of two of the most celebrated Christian books of recent decades The Spirit of the Disciplines and The Divine Conspiracy. Our conversation with the gray-haired, bespectacled professor of philosophy was centering on how faith is exercised through prayer.

Other twelfth century monastic movements

The Carthusians were profoundly influenced by the early monasticism of Egypt. Their way was one of great austerity. Those who followed it lived in separate little houses, wore hair shirts, fasted rigorously, and gave themselves to reading, prayer, and labour, especially the copying of manuscripts. Each community met together for worship in a common chapel, for some of their meals, and occasionally for conversation. Never nearly as numerous as the Cistercians, the Carthusians were to persist with rules which were not to be basically altered.

Does God hide Himself

God talked with faithful Noah (Genesis 6 13). Noah was different from others to whom God appeared. He followed God's Instructions (Genesis 7 5). The same was true of Abraham. God personally appeared to Abraham and had conversations with him on several occasions (Genesis 12 1, 7 13 14 17 1-3).

Umar AlKhattab submits to Islam

During this period, 'Umar Al-Khattab adopted Islam. In him the new faith gained a valuable adherent and an important factor in the future development and propagation of Islam. Hitherto he had been a violent opposer of the Prophet and a bitter enemy of Islam. His conversion is said to have been worked by the miraculous effect on his mind of a Surah of the Quran which his sister was reading in her house, where he had gone with the intention of killing her for adopting Islam. Thus the party of the Prophet had been strengthened by the conversation by his uncle Hamza, a man of great valor and merit and of Abu Bakr and 'Umar, both men of great energy and reputation. The Muslims now ventured to perform their devotions in public.

Holy heretics and schismatic saints

In some particular cases the saint of one church is the theological enfant terrible, or even the formally condemned heretic of the other. Archbishop Mesrob Krikorian provided a list of such 'holy heretics' and 'schismatic saints' in 1990. For example, Patriarch Mar Severus of Antioch and Bishop Philoxenos of Mabbug, as well as the Alexandrian Patriarchs Dioscorus and Timothy Aelurus are venerated by the Oriental Orthodox Churches, but anathematized by the Byzantine Orthodox and the Latin Churches. On the other hand, Pope Leo the Great and the Patriarchs Flavian, Anatolius and Gennadius are all anathematized by the Oriental Orthodox Churches, but count as saints in the Chalcedonian Churches. The problem has been discussed, but the issue has not yet been resolved in the ecumenical approach of modern times, and is particularly topical in conversation between the Syrian Orthodox Church and the Church of the East. There Diodore of Tarsus, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Narsai (Narses of Edessa)...

Christ Will Accomplish His Mission

And Jesus came and spoke unto them, saying, all power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. Matt. 28 18. As you have given him power over all flesh, that he should give eternal life to as many as you have given him. John 17 2. For to this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living. Rom. 14 9. For our conversation is in heaven from whence also we look for the Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ who will change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself. Phil. 3 20, 21. The Father loves the Son, and has given all things into his hand. John 3 35.

World Without Love The Greco Roman World and Early Christianity

Gerhard Uhlhorn, in his magisterial three-volume study of the history of Christian charity, described the Greco-Roman context for Christianity as ''a world without love.'' Uhlhorn (1826-1901) was motivated to undertake his study by a conversation with Theodor Fliedner (1800-1864), the ''father'' of the modern deaconess movement and a leader in the development of social welfare. Fliedner had urged Uhlhorn to write the history of Christian charity in order to awaken and increase contemporary works of love in the context of the social ills of the Industrial Revolution. Given Uhlhorn's intent to present the history of Christian love, his judgment of the Greco-Roman world may appear both harsh and suspect. His point, however, was not that pre-Christian Greeks and Romans had no inkling of love but that their understanding of love did not envision love beyond one's own circle or status for the well being of others.

Vatican Woes Paganisation of Europe

Europeans, with their long history of struggles against the Church have seen the Emperor without his clothes. But Asiatics, Indians in particular, have failed to understand this history, and have accepted Church propaganda as truth. It is time that the people of the so-called Third World countries who have now become the target of the Church, following its near total rejection by the West, see the truth and recognize the real face of the Church. In this, India, with its deep philosophical roots, must take the lead. The Church is no more a soul-saving institution than the British East India Company was an organization devoted to the spread of civilization. Indians with their long association with European countries, backed by an unmatched pluralislic civilization of their own, should be in an ideal position to explore and expose the theocratic aims of Christianity. But with rare exceptions this has not happened. It is a source of unending wonder to me that despite the great number of...

By The Primacy Of

28 For a good, brief introduction to nonfoundationalism, written with theological interests in mind, see William C. Placher, Unapologetic Theology A Christian Voice in a Pluralistic Conversation (Louisville, KY Westminster John Knox Press, 1989), pp. 24-36. For a more technical discussion, see John Thiel, Nonfoundationalism (Minneapolis Fortress Augsburg, 1994)-

Arab Christianity in the Classical Islamic World

It is maybe understandable that Muslims should take this kind of view because by about 800 Christians had begun to employ Arabic as their language of everyday conversation and in specifically religious contexts as well. While John of Damascus before 750 could write in Greek and be understood by a local audience in Palestine, translations of biblical and other key texts into Arabic were already being made at about this time in monasteries around Jerusalem. And by the early ninth century there were theologians writing, and more significantly thinking, in Arabic and employing arguments identical to those being found in current usage among Muslims. The most famous in these first generations of Arab Christian theologians were Theodore Abu Ourra (d. c.830), Melkite Bishop of Harran, Hablb Ibn Khidma Abu Raita (d. c.835) the Jacobite, and cAmmar al-Basri (fl. 820) the Nestorian. The surviving works of each of these authors show that they were attempting to explain their theology to Muslims...

Annotated Bibliography of Books on Theology and Popular Culture

These are works that search for culturally influential religious or theological themes based upon a cross-referencing of (with a few exceptions) multiple avenues of popular culture, for example, film, novels, television, advertising, music. Books that do the same kind of analysis but limit themselves to a single medium are listed separately. By background theorists, an attempt is made to single out the thinkers these authors favor or are consciously in conversation with. This is intended to provide reference points about the scholarly commitments, method, etc. of each of these authors and their analyses. To whom, in other words, do they feel answerable - theologians, sociologists, historians of religion, philosophers, cultural theorists whose style of analysis is offered as most productive of insight (Harrisburg, PA Trinity Press International, 2003). The primary aim of this book is to challenge the unidirectionality of the standard secularization theory. Instead, Ostwalt argues,...

The Bible Frequently Affirms Its Own Clarity

There is a similar emphasis in the New Testament. Jesus himself, in his teachings, his conversations, and his disputes, never responds to any questions with a hint of blaming the Old Testament Scriptures for being unclear. Even while speaking to firstcentury people who were removed from David by 1,000 years, from Moses by about 1,500 years, and from Abraham by about 2,000 years, Jesus still assumes that such people are able to read and rightly to understand the Old Testament Scriptures.

The emergence of Neo Spinozism

Apparently not having learned his lesson from trying but failing to find an ally in Lessing, Jacobi sent a copy of his account of the conversation to his friend and fellow critic of pure reason, Herder. In Herder's response, God Some Conversations (1787), we find the turning point in the reception of Spinoza in Germany. For Herder (and, later, for the early Romantics), Spinoza represented an alternative to atheism and theism. First, however, Spinoza's philosophy had to be brought up to date. Herder thought that Spinoza did not need vindication so much as he needed to be translated, since the reason Spinoza had been so misunderstood had to do not with the content of his philosophy but with its rationalistic form. So Herder systematically set about translating Spinoza into the philosophical language of late eighteenth-century Germany, the language informed by recent developments in biology and chemistry. A paradigm shift in

Preface and Acknowledgements

The contributors to this volume discuss the distinctive characteristics of Christianity in Asia its concepts, historical setting and its place in the religion and society of Asia. It is hoped that it will provide a prospect for conversation between Asian Christian theologians and those in other parts of the world, identifying some commonalities and diversities, and suggesting methodologies for further interaction.

Appendix B George Washingtons Vision

One day, I remember it well, the chilly winds whistled through the leafless trees. Though the sky was cloudless and the sun shone brightly, he remained in his quarters nearly all of the afternoon, alone. When he came out I noticed that his face was a shade paler than usual, and there seemed to be something on his mind of more than ordinary importance. Returning just after dusk, he dispatched an orderly to the quarters of an officer, who was presently in attendance. After a preliminary conversation of about half an hour, Washington, gazing upon his companion with that strange look of dignity which he alone could command said to the latter. This material is taken from a tape titled America Will Burn which is distributed by the League of Prayer PO Box 4038, Montgomery AL 36103. It consists of a conversation between an interviewer, Duduman and an interpreter. The nature of the revelations is somewhat awkward because the interpreter is doing a running translation of Duduman speaking in...

Ancient Philosophical Motives for Esoteric Writing

Boethius begins by reminding Symmachus - his father-in-law, mentor, protector - that their shared inquiries could properly be spoken only between them.10 Boethius pleads this as one excuse for the roughness of his writing. He has had little chance to polish it in conversation. He also reminds Symmachus of what a lettered patrician hardly needs explained there are venerable customs of reserve in the most respected philosophic schools that they inherit together.

True Meaning of Nirvana

It is not true that Gautama never taught anything concerning a future life, or that he denied the immortality of the soul. Ask any intelligent Buddhist his ideas on Nirvana, and he will unquestionably express himself, as the well-known Wong-Chin-Fu, the Chinese orator, now travelling in this country, did in a recent conversation with us about Niepang (Nirvana). This condition, he remarked, we all understand to mean a final reunion with God, coincident with the perfection of the human spirit by its ultimate

Imagination and Reason

Things everything depends upon the continuous conversation between sensation and imagination. We are not easily deceived by sensation but are fooled by a false imagination which interprets some sense-datum as part of a whole context to which it does not belong according to repeated, critical and common experience. By using concepts, images, patterns -be they visual images or the refined symbols of language and mathematics -- which do not apply to the experience at hand we are led to false expectations and to inept reactions. In the darkness a perverse imagination interprets the visual impression of one side and section of the tree trunk so as to make a ghost out of the whole in a moment of inattention I accept the word bark as part of a sentence about a dog rather than about a tree. In these cases it is not sensation but imagination which has been in error. Reason does not dispense with imagination but seeks to employ apt images and patterns whereby an otherwise inscrutable sensation...

The church in evangelical theology and practice

The emergent church movement is one such movement that has potential to re-shape evangelicalism's ecclesiology. The emergent church is consciously associated with evangelicalism, although it has its own unique character. It is a relatively new movement with young leaders who are highly independent. Although loose relationships exist between emergent churches, there is no hierarchy, structure, donor base, or web of supporting organizations such as marks established evangelicalism. This gives the movement an independent, even idiosyncratic atmosphere. In addition, emergent churches are often deliberately postmodern, urban, hip, and eclectic. Yet there are some affinities between the emergent church and broad evangelicalism with definite efforts at communication and affiliation. These affinities make the emergent church conversation worth careful consideration among those interested in evangelical eccle-siology. For one thing, emergent church participants are keenly interested in classic...

The Triune God Of The Bible

Consider how when you deliberate silently within yourself by reason, this same action takes place within you that takes place in God , while reason accompanied by discourse (sermo) meets you at every moment of your thought, at every impression of your consciousness your every thought is discourse, your every consciousness is reason you must perforce speak it in your mind, and while you speak it you experience as a partner in conversation (conlocutorem) that discourse which has in it this very reason by which you speak when you think in company of that discourse in speaking by means of which you think. Because of the dialectical character of human reasoning, it is plausible, argues Tertullian, to speak of a kind of second 'person' within us. 'So in a sort of way you have in you a second discourse by means of which you speak by thinking and by means of which you think by speaking discourse itself is another than you .' Tertullian is not interested in...

A question we might ask

Yet, do we need to do this (d) suggests that we do not, that we might take the existence of things in the universe, and the existence of the universe as a whole, not to raise questions about agent-causality. The fact of the matter, though, is that we just do seek causally to account for what exists but does not intrinsically have to, and we take seeking of this kind to be the mark of a reasonable person. When asked if he would speak of the universe as 'gratuitous', Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) once famously replied, 'I should say that the universe is just there, and that's all.'25 His position on that occasion was based on three stated assumptions (a) that the word 'universe' does not stand for anything that has meaning, (b) that something in the world might arise without an agent-cause (or agent-causes), and (c) that, while it might be legitimate to ask what in the world caused some object or event in the world, there is no warrant for asking what causally accounts for the world as a...

Hermeneutic Views of Theology and Social Theory

Choice of assumptions involves controversies that lie deep in the history of Western thought. Social science as public philosophy would make the philosophical conversation concerning these matters its own. (Bellah et al. 1985 301) Hans-Georg Gadamer has provided us with valuable guidance in our understanding of our work as always involving a dialog with the tradition out of which we come. He reminds us also that our conversation with contemporaries or predecessors is never closed on itself but is always about something. (Bellah et al. 1985 330) If Milbank's proposal for theology as Christian sociology is aimed primarily at the Church, then it at least has plausibility. But to be truly effective it would need to go beyond a strictly confessional approach. To meet criticism from others, especially at the metaphysical level, is no small matter, and one I will not address directly in this chapter. But I will recommend the writings of Schubert Ogden, John Cobb, David Tracy, and Franklin...

The More Specific Contributions of Social Theory

Nonetheless, the material and social-systemic conditions shaping social action need to be understood by any socially responsible theology. Hermeneutic theorist Paul Ricoeur has gone beyond Gadamer in locating explanation, and the cognitive distancing that it requires, as a submoment within a larger view of understanding as dialog and conversation (Ricoeur 1981d 145-64). Hence, the search for causal patterns need not totally undermine a fuller view of social action and social theory based on phronesis, understanding, and the role of both freedom and tradition that these concepts entail.

Conditions For Being A True Muslim

Two people went to the mosque and prayed there. Something was offered to them. They said they were fasting. After talking for a while, when they were about to leave, the Prophet (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said to them Do your prayers again, and perform your fasting again For you have backbitten someone in your conversation. That is, you have mentioned one of his faults. Backbiting removes the

Moses as Protagonist in the Dramatic Shift from Ancient to Medieval Philosophy

In leading students into the vortex of the debate which the Hebrew scriptures were to engender in philosophical circles, it has proven beneficial to pursue closely Aristotle's inquiry in the Metaphysics, showing how his attempt to respond to a legacy of questions, notably from Plato, virtually set the agenda for subsequent philosophical reflection on these comprehensive issues. Yet the encounter with Moses (as the putative author of Genesis) displays a lacuna which earnest students of Aristotle might well miss how effectively he steers clear of the issue of the origin of the universe. Edward Booth (1985) has traced the effects of this lacuna through the subsequent commentaries, notably as it was displayed in a lingering aporia which bedeviled that tradition does Aristotle give primacy to the individual existing thing, as his critique of Plato leads us to believe he will, or rather to essence as its intelligible component. It remains a nice question whether the inner dynamic of the...

Showing The Fly The Way Out Of The Bottle

Wittgenstein's point is that language does not refer, or picture, or correspond to, some nonlinguistic reality there is no way for us to imagine that to which language corresponds ( a state of affairs, the world, reality, etc.) except in terms of the very language that this reality is supposed to be considered in isolation of. Rather, learning a language is an irreducibly social enterprise by which a child is trained into a communal mode of living. Thus Wittgenstein likened language to a series of games that require partners for playing In a conversation One person throws a ball the other does

Interpretation through Revelation

We may employ other parables to clarify to ourselves how we actually employ the revelatory moment as a rational principle for the understanding of present experience. Revelation is like a classic drama which, through the events of one day and place, makes intelligible the course of a family history. Or it is like a decisive moment in the common life of friends. In the face of some emergency a man may act so as to reveal a quality undisclosed before. Through that revelatory moment his friend is enabled to understand past actions which had been obscure and to prophesy the future behavior of the revealer. But the revealing moment not only disclosed constant features of conduct which had previously been hidden it also introduced a new relation between the persons and remains a unique point in their history. Again, a conversation between friends can become very confused so that they do not understand each other. In such a situation they not only seek to define their words but go back to a...

God Reveals Himself

As we make this attempt we remind ourselves of the relative standpoint we occupy in history and faith. We are not trying to describe a common human certainty gained in a common human experience yet on the other hand we are not seeking to set forth a private and mystic assurance which is not subject to the criticism of our community, that is of all those who occupy the same standpoint and look in the same direction toward the same reality to which we look as individuals. Assurance that we are not mistaken in our ultimate convictions is not to be gained without social corroboration, but it is not to be gained either from consultation with those who, occupying a different point of view, look in a different direction and toward other realities than we do in our history and faith. Assurance grows out of immediate perception plus social corroboration and out of neither one of these alone. We also recall to mind that the definition of revelation is a social task of the historic Christian...

Paul missionary at large

After three years, he goes on to say, but whether measured from his conversion or his return to Damascus seems not entirely clear, Paul went to Jerusalem and was with Peter for fifteen days and also saw James, the brother of Jesus. We may surmise, although we cannot prove, that through these contacts he learned much of the life, teachings, death, and resurrection of Jesus. To one of Paul's temperament this brief sojourn in Jerusalem must have been deeply moving. Memories of his student days and of the persecution in which he had an active part and scenes associated with the life and death of his new Master must have stirred him to the depths. It is not surprising that in the temple he fell into a trance and seemed to see Jesus and talk with him, and that the burden of their conversation was Paul's future work. Nor is it strange that Paul wished to be a missionary to his own people. Indeed, he never outgrew his eager longing that all Jews might become, as he was, a Christian. Perhaps...

Argument and advocacy

For the Church, as an institution of power, cannot but be part of the status quo. In fact, by stressing textual and historical conditions, he argues that Marx's famous criticism of religion in the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right is directed more at the Church and its ideological function. As far as religion is concerned, Marx was much more ambivalent, the well-known opium reference also allowing religion a role as the expression of misery and suffering and as protest against it. This point is so wellworn that it hardly requires comment any longer, although it is worth the imaginative leap to the freshness of an observation well after it has become tired and foot-sore. For Bloch, the only way forward is a common front between Marxists and Christians, for 'conversations between believers purged of ideology and unbelievers purged of taboo'.12 Atheism and Christianity may well be read as part of this conversation, attempting to persuade two audiences Bloch would rather see...

Towards A Latin American Theology

It was only in 1968 that the first Latin American theological texts began to appear. When I say Latin American here, I mean that these texts contain reflections that are peculiar to this segment of the Church and that are different from the thinking of other segments of the Church. Our thinking is so different, in fact, that theologians from other parts of the world do not understand it when we try to explain it to them sometimes they do not feel it is any concern of theirs at all. In Quito I had a conversation with a German theologian. I was telling him that we were now reflecting on the whole matter of liberation. He expressed surprise and interest, and he asked me to tell him more about it. But do you know w hat was really on the top of his mind at the moment Hans Kung's book on papal infallibility. The problem of liberation that occupies us right now -was far from his thoughts. Europeans are down to splitting hairs while we must fInd out whether we even possess a head of hair and...

Subjectivity and Belief

In the Fall of 1995, I completed the first draft of Sex and the Church (Rudy 1997), a book which argued that sexism and homophobia were inextricably intertwined (especially for the Christian right), that the socially constructed distinction between heterosexuality and homosexuality was a poor way to conceptualize Christian ministry, and that progressive Christians should stop encouraging gays and lesbians to take up monogamous relationships and try instead to understand the value of a lifestyle built on community. Although it would be 18 months before the book would be published, I felt happy that Fall to be finished with the first stage, and sent the manuscript to my editor and to several of my colleagues at Duke University At that time, I was just starting my second year of a joint appointment at Duke between the Divinity School and Women's Studies. It was a great job for me because my partner also taught at Duke, we owned a house in Durham (North Carolina), had two dogs and a kid...

Can our guilt be wiped away What is sanctifying grace

When the followers of Jesus looked for a name to attach to this forgiving love, it had to be from the Greek language, because most of their writing and preaching outside of Palestine was in Greek. They chose the word charts, which we translate as grace. Unfortunately the word has been so badly kicked around in theological controversy that another word, like'graciousness or even gracefulness, would convey better the kind of meaning about God we mean. When we speak of graceful we could mean, for example, a charming hostess, a woman of taste, elegance, sensitivity, who is skillful at putting her guests at ease, making them feel at home, and drawing out the best of them with her sparkling conversation. She doesn't have to do these things, of course it is

Digression 18 What Happened In Eden

Maybe the serpent had eaten of the tree of knowledge, which would explain his subtilty. Eve saw that the tree was a tree to be desired to make one wise (Gen. 3,6) . How could she have seen this unless she saw the result of eating the fruit in the life of something that had already done so It may well be that Eve had had several conversations with the serpent before the one recorded in Genesis 3. The first recorded words of the serpent to Eve are, Yea, hath God said (Gen. 3,1) - the word Yea ossibly implying that this was a continuation of a previous conversation that is not recorded.

Freemasonry Mormonism

The observant Craftsman cannot be long among the Mormon people without noting the not infrequent use made of certain emblems and symbols which have come to be associated in the public mind with the Masonic fraternity. And now and again he will catch expressions and phrases in conversation, and meet with The Candidates are then conducted into what is known as the 'Celestial Room.' There also characters appear and carry on conversations, relating to the ceremonies, and other preparations are made for administering of the third oath, which is as follows

William T Cavanaugh and Peter Scott

Our choice of topics and authors has followed the same hope. We have tried to give a voice at the table to a great variety of different views that accurately reflect the state of the conversation today. All the same, some readers may be disappointed by the exclusion of some topics and puzzled by the inclusion of others. Here we must lament the limitations of space and confess our own personal limitations. There is no question, for example, that, although the volume contains some voices from the two-thirds world, the volume as a whole is weighted toward the world we know best, and more accurately reflects the state of the conversation in Europe and North America. The volume is organized into five sections. The first addresses some of the primary resources of the Christian tradition to which theologians appeal in constructing political theologies scripture, liturgy, Augustine, Aquinas, and some of the great theologians of the Reformation. The second surveys some of the most important...

Walk through the Streets of a Provincial City

The slave practiced her lucrative trade publicly, in the streets. Evidence that female slaves and other women of humble status moved freely in urban streets and squares modifies the scholarly generalization that public spaces were male whereas private spaces were female. In the Hellenistic Jewish narrative of Judith, for example, Judith's confinement to her home at the beginning and end of the story establishes her status as a respectable free woman of considerable means. It seems natural, however, for her female slave to travel through the streets, with no apparent companion, to invite the elders to a meeting in Judith's house. In an article on Jesus' conversation with the Samaritan woman at the well (John 4), Jerome Neyrey argues that the woman's presence in a public space, at noon, and engaged in conversation with a stranger, marked her as deviant. Neyrey's assessment of the Samaritan woman as deviant because of her presence in a public place at midday can only be sustained if we...

Holy Spirit A Mystical Politics of Liberation

The way forward to meeting the challenge posed by the dilemma is to allow the notion of person, when used for the divine life, to be reconstructed by the mystical communalism of the biblical narratives. That is to say, the personal nature of spirit is understood less as discrete ego, and more in the cultural terms of relation. In these latter terms, a person is constituted by the mutual relations to others. To be a person is to be a self within multiple and changing relations, in nature and diverse human contexts (Tillich 1967 I, 168-70 MacMurray 1961). On this model, the Holy Spirit is inter-person. It is divine personal presence, but a presence that is interpersonal, relational, intersubjective. Perhaps one of the clearest examples of the flourishing of such a view of the self lies in the tendency in Jamaican vernacular to refer to one's self in conversation as I-an'-I (Murrell et al. 1998 107ff.). St. Augustine is exemplary of doctrinal debate already pointing in the direction of...

The Contours of Thomas Thought Exegesis of a Text

Second, Thomas' thought is traditioned he thinks as a participant in the give and take of a living tradition (see MacIntyre 1991). While modern thought is distinguished in part by its desire to find an indubitable starting point from which to begin, Thomas approaches thought as a participant in a complex conversation that is already underway. The quaestio format, which is at the heart of the Summa Theologiae (hereafter ST), as well as other texts, presents the living voice of the tradition in the arguments and counter-arguments with which the quaestio begins. Third, Thomas' thought is scriptural. The tradition to which Thomas belongs is a conversation initiated by God with humanity, as recorded in the Bible. The fundamental contours of Thomas' thought are not, as sometimes thought, Aristotelian, but biblical. It is true that Thomas freely employs the treasures of philosophy (Platonic as well as Aristotelian) in order to enrich the Christian tradition. But it is the voice of scripture...

Keyword theology of religions

(3) Paradigm Jews and Christians The most intensive place where today westerners learn how to dialogue is the debate between Christians and Jews. This dialogue got intensified after World War II and the terrible experiences of the time of Nazism when millions of Jews were sent to and murdered in German concentration camps, and Christians became aware that most of the murderers had been baptized. Christians, at first, were shocked and silenced, and then they learnt what it means to show respect for the other subject.10 Since then the Jewish homicide is reason to reexamine the conversation with the adherents of the Old Testament fundamentally. (3) For Christians the true way to God leads through Jesus Christ and his relation to God the Father Whoever has seen me has seen the Father. (John 14 9) In Christ God has revealed himself in a Trinitarian way of relations in which humans find new life after guilt and death. For Christians the new life is a new life in community they call it a...

Commentary On Diagram

His persistence is recorded in Verse 30 after Abraham had just said to him, They (his brothers) have Moses and the prophets let them hear them. Here is his reply, and he said, Nay, Father Abraham but if one went unto them from the dead, they will repent (change their mind). No doubt he was still trying, but to no avail for Abraham closed the conversation when he told him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead. This is a true and literal account of the conversation between a lost man in the Torment of Hades and Abraham in the Paradise side of Hades. A true account of where they were and what they said.

Standard theological options stewardship valuing nature

I thank Dee Carter for conversation that has helped me to clarify my thinking on stewardship. sometimes it seems that what is central is the 'transcendent, creator God-as-person',60 especially in relation to the critique of idolatry on other occasions, the 'fundamental inspiration' of Christianity seems to be 'exemplary texts', particularly the creation narratives.61 The second wins out over the first, I consider. That is, in order 'to expand a cultural conversation about ecology beyond the language of utilitarian individualism', appeal is made to the metaphor of caring for creation which 'might serve to unite all traditions of faith in setting an environmental agenda'. After all, Oelschlaeger informs us, 'A creation story is primordial, carrying both obligations with it and injunctions for human behavior toward all aspects of the world.'62 Thus we get another glimpse of the ethical nature of the argument being made here 'environmental questions are not primarily economic...

The Orderings of Creation

We now may be at a sufficient distance from the Second World War to offer a cogent theological appraisal. Now consider a different example globalization. How should globalization be thought of in the perspective of a doctrine of creation, as related to the Creator God A benign reading might argue that trade is a part of the basic - universal - conversation of humanity and that its extension is likely to benefit all participants, if not equally (Sen 1999 see also chapter 33 on Globalization by Peter Sedgwick in this volume). A more cautious reading would argue that the economic and ecological aspects of such intensification of trade require careful attention, together with an account of whether people participate in such global processes unequally (or not). I do not plan to argue the matter out here. What, however, is clearly indicated is that a theological account of the present global order is required that is attentive to universal and normative aspects as universalizing, does...

The Vocation of the Poet

This analysis did not, of course, come instantaneously to the young Romantic Coleridge, and it seems that he was content for some time to accept the tensions and celebrate the new life that he saw all around - as may be seen in the Conversation Poems, and during his early friendship with William Wordsworth. From such a position, pantheism was an obviously attractive theological step, and Coleridge and Wordsworth would discuss Spinoza together often whilst working on Lyrical Ballads.21 Pantheism was, however, fundamentally unsatisfactory for Coleridge, as it removed any possibility of personality in God, or of human freedom. Here, perhaps, is Coleridge's most pressing question in his life as a young poet he wished to ascribe both personality and will to both God and humanity. Again, and perhaps better, he came to believe God to be personal and volitional, knew the same to be true of humanity, and sought ways to understand these things. This may be done in a trivial way by separating...

Scripts of the twiceborn

En route, however, they encounter one of Jesus' apostles, Rufus, who has been sent to stop them. What they had not realized is that if they return to heaven it will force a reversal of God's decree on their transgression, which was binding until the end of time. The reversal of any of God's decrees entails a metaphysical paradox that will result in the total negation of the whole of creation. All of existence will unravel in the instant they re-enter heaven. Rufus and his companions throw them off the train, and, reassessing the situation, Loki and Bartleby have the following conversation

Music as the limit of reason

1 In the few remarks which follow about music, I am much indebted to a long-running conversation with Ferdia Stone-Davis, research student in the Faculty of Divinity at Cambridge, whose comments on an earlier draft have enabled me to avoid some otherwise serious errors. This is not to say that she would agree with all that I say here, but everything I do say reflects in some way those conversations in which we have engaged in consequence of her research.

What Being Born Again Means

We learn from scriptures that man sets himself apart unto God to be holy and God accepts him, forgives him and cleanses him, making him holy by the truth and by faith (CP Lev 20 7-8 Eze 18 30-31 Jn 17 17-19 Ac 26 18 Tit 3 3-6 1Pe 1 15-16). The word conversation in 1Pe 1 15 means behaviour - it is our behaviour that sets us apart unto holiness before God. But we can only maintain that state of holiness by the empowering of the Holy Spirit, and for that empowering to be effective in our lives we must always be yielded to the Holy Spirit's leading (CP Ro 8 5-17 Ga 5 16-25 6 7-9). Grieving the Holy Spirit leads to resisting Him (CP Ac 7 51) this in turn leads to quenching the Spirit (CP 1Th 5 19), and finally to despising Him (CP He 10 26-31), which will damn us for eternity. Renewing of the Holy Ghost in Tit 3 5 refers to the constant impartation of divine life to believers by the Holy Spirit after we surrender our lives to God (CP 2Pe 1 3-4). We must always continue willing to follow...

The Talmud A Closed Book Even When Open

For ye have heard of my conversation in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure I persecuted the church of God, and wasted it And profited in the Jews' religion above many my equals in mine own nation, being more exceedingly zealous of the traditions of my fa thers (Galatians 1 13-14).

The Historical Method of Christian Faith

In the bewilderment which assails him in this situation the modern Christian, like many a predecessor in the church, is tempted again and again to drop the history and to hold fast to the faith, to give up the Jesus of history while affirming afresh his loyalty to the Christ of faith. But faith is a strange thing it is not sufficient to itself and will not work alone. It is like the eye which cannot perceive the depth and distance and solidity of things save as it has a partner. Or it is like Adam who seeks a helpmeet among all the creatures and cannot be fruitful in loins or mind until an Eve is given him for conversation. And Christian faith, having tried many other partners, has found that these can speak with it of its God only if they have been schooled in Christian history. Nor are there any among them that speak a universal language if they do not speak in Galilean accents some other province not less small in the infinite world has shaped their voices and minds in its own way....

Offence at the Supernatural

I was engaged in a conversation with a local pastor recently in which the subject of heart idols came up. This brother said that he believed that people certainly do make up their own minds about certain matters and even embrace certain doctrines because of preconceived ideas hear what they want to hear he said. And although there is some truth to that, I don't believe that accurately describes what is really going on spiritually.

Are you both attracted and repelled by the internet at the very same time

Taking a more optimistic view of these developments, Scott Adams, the creator of the comic strip Dilbert, wrote a curious book recently that promotes the equation of God and the Internet. In the book, God's Debris A Thought Experiment, Adams stages a lengthy conversation between a mysterious old man named Avatar and a package delivery man who delivers the old man a package then stays through the night, sitting by the fire, as Avatar spins metaphysical tales. Through Avatar, Adams speculates that the world as we know it began when God blew himself to bits, and that the span of cosmic history is the long process by which God's debris is reassembling itself. Every element of reality is a bit of God human beings happen to be the bits through which God is recovering his consciousness. With every action that integrates the discrete elements of the world into a more complete harmony, God is further revived. Avatar explains, Every economic activity helps. Whether you are programming...

Religion religions religiosity

Before we continue dealing with Jesus and the religions we briefly have to clear up how we understand religion. Therefore, we ask in the second step How is religion understood in Christian theology What is the general understanding in public conversations Actually I would like to return to the original meaning of religion, which will teach us that this meaning cannot be simply transferred to the plurality of religions. At the same time we have to realize that what has been lost from the old concept is being restored in our days by new expressions. In fact today we speak not only about religion and religions, but also about religiosity and spirituality.

Economy Religion And Government

Then I mentioned how the Lord had challenged me after the conversation with Bro. Tony. He said, There's a third part to this, that you're not willing to face up to The third part is What must happen for there to be a one world govt. The answer is that America must fall They easily agreed with me, anticipating at worst an economic collapse of the U.S.

Difficult Scriptures And Questions

We have found in our previous study that Hades is in the center of the earth, having two compartments--one Paradise, the other Torment--with a conversation from both sides going on. This would hardly be true of the grave. If this were to happen in the grave, the next time I preach a funeral someone else will have to finish it because if the corpse has anything to say, I am leaving. Here, it is simply a mistranslation. We might make mention that many of the Greek manuscripts have the same Greek word for death and grave, which is thanatos. It would then read O death, where is thy sting O death, where is thy victory

Daniels Vision of the Cleansing

Finally, in the vision, Daniel heard a conversation between two saints. One asked a question, and the other gave an answer that sent a thrill of hope through the captive prophet. The question apparently concerned the very thing Daniel was concerned over the restoration of the Jerusalem temple. How long shall be to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot (Daniel 8 13). The answer was, Unto two thousand and three hundred days then shall the sanctuary be cleansed (Daniel 8 14). visions relating to world history. He was well-acquainted with both Medo-Persia and Alexander's kingdom of Greece, which were to follow Babylon. He had also been informed about the fourth kingdom of Rome and how the blasphemous little horn would come forth afterward to challenge God's law and government. Gabriel's explanation of those future developments were of vital interest to Daniel, the statesman, but his deepest concern was for the restoration of the temple. He wanted to hear more about...

Cycles of Mercy and Judgment

Only recently have I really dealt with any critics of the New Wine, or New Wind, on a personal level. Specifically I refer to the writings of Andrew Strom found on his Web site, the New Zealand Revival Bulletin. I read a lot of his material but it really didn't sink in till I had a long conversation with a brother from Indiana named John Webster. Then the next morning the Lord gave me the above thoughts about cycles of mercy and judgment. Till then I guess I just couldn't comprehend what they were getting at. It gradually dawned on me that these brothers actually believe that the New Wine is a deception And from this, following along in logical order, that it is of the devil, and those involved are false teachers and false prophets And all this leading to some pretty serious charges And this from spirit filled

Interpretative Difficulties

To raise this as a problem of understanding is to raise an issue that was not one during earlier centuries in which Europeans were in the process of forging their identity with the Greeks at the beginning. For centuries it had been thought that one could read the writings of, say, Greeks and Romans, and see there portrayed behaviour that was thought to be admirable in any age. The past was read about for no other reason than that it was thought to be exemplary and capable of being imitated.9 It was reckoned to be a useful past. Hence, a fourteenth-century thinker like Petrarch, the Italian poet who was enamoured of what he took to be the personality and values of the first-century bc pagan Roman, Cicero, could imagine having an unproblematic conversation with Cicero in Latin. Petrarchan 'speaking' with someone from the ancient Roman world did not involve considering that the ancient might not understand him for the reason that each

The Angloamerican Intelligence Cult

The American intelligence cults are awesome in their own right. Experts write, The United States had created an awesome data-collection organization that could sweep up virtually every single transmission within its reach, from ordinary telephone conversations to super-secret enciphered transmissions. Among those who knew, no one yet fully grasped the implications of that capacity. 72

Triumph Of Faith

I wasn't sure what to expect as I waited at Templeton's doorstep. Would he be as combative as he was in his book Would he be bitter toward Billy Graham Would he even go through with our interview When he had consented in a brief telephone conversation two days earlier, he had said vaguely that his health was not good. That was what I had expected. But I could never have anticipated how our conversation would end.

The European Context

The interest in evidential Christianity did not distinguish Americans from Europeans. In the half century after Locke published On the Reasonableness of Christianity, the topic of theological rationality consumed theologians in England, and it continued to occupy European theologians well into the nineteenth century. Americans looked to Europe for refinements of evidential arguments and for expertise in every field of theology. Robert Baird assured Europeans that America provided a better market for their theology, particularly works of a practical character,'' than their own regions. He thought that some of the best English treatises, for example, had a wider circulation in the United States than in England itself.'' When Americans wrote their own theological texts, they usually entered a conversation that extended beyond American shores.17

David Frankfurter

One notices it first in the early documents of Coptic art crosses in the shape of the ancient hieroglyph for 'life', symbols of Christian triumph juxtaposed to archaic desert beasts, tombs awash with classical nymphs and heroes, saints posed in armour, on horseback, wielding weapons against demonic chaos just like the god Horus several centuries earlier.1 Clearly the assimilation of Christianity in Egypt took place in creative ways that challenge older notions of 'conversion'. Christianisation certainly served as more than just a way for peasants to keep their heathen ways, as many nineteenth-century historians judged it. Yet it was also more complex a process than the arrival of spiritual truth to a culture bereft of its gods and temples. In essence we may say that, over the third to sixth centuries, a distinctive Christianity came about in the land of Egypt both through conversation with active local traditions of religious expression and simply in 'being there' - taking root in a...

Stephen R Holmes

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) has suffered celebrity. A pair of poems and a drug habit have been enough to convince many that they knew all that was worth knowing about him. It has for too long been forgotten that he left pioneering writings in perhaps half a dozen different academic fields, and influenced by his friendship and conversation a fair proportion of those who were to define the cultural life of the Victorian age. He is becoming known again 1 it is to the credit of several pioneers that the theological community rediscovered him rather early on, and so this essay has many distinguished precursors from which to learn.2

Josephs Qualities

He was given wisdom in affairs and knowledge of life and its conditions. He as given the art of conversation, captivating those who heard him. He was given nobility and self restraint, which made him an irresistible personality. His master soon knew that Allah had graced him with Joseph. He understood that Joseph was the most honest, straightforward and noble person he had met in his life. Therefore, he put Joseph in charge of his household, honored him, and treated him as a son.

Phallus

When pushed, most people will admit that God has no body, but they will still think that he does, and how could they not when they think him a he. For popular piety the learning of the theologians is neither here nor there, let alone the teaching of the church's mystical tradition that if we are to understand God we must begin to abandon the images by which we strive to comprehend God. We must learn to let them fall away, like the rope that helps to hoist a glider aloft, and which the glider must release in order for it to spiral upwards on nothing but rising air. Unless the rope is released the glider will never rise, but fall back to the ground. In order to know the God of the Bible we have to let the Bible go. When Augustine and his mother Monica looked out on the garden in Ostia, and, through their conversation, ascended together to the divine wisdom, they did so by moving beyond - if only for a moment - the words and bodily images by which they climbed, and with which Augustine...

Walter Brueggemann

The Book of Jeremiah, second of the three major prophets, is immensely complex. Its different interpretive voices stretch across several generations and do not cohere into an easily identifiable and uniform theology. Instead, in both poetry and prose, the Book of Jeremiah witnesses an ongoing conversation among different advocates concerning the crisis of Babylon's expansion and Jerusalem's demise. In this volume, Walter Brueggemann elucidates these various voices in the context of Judah's commitment to the rule of the one God, Yhwh. This messy interface of the theological and political constitutes the primal challenge of the Book of Jeremiah, and Brueggemann shows how the book asserts that God continues to be similarly and disturbingly operative in the affairs of the world. In this way, contemporary crises such as American imperialism and religiously inspired terrorism are shown to be dislocations with ancient antecedents, but dislocations that continue to invite readers to new...

Sergius Bulgakov

For Bulgakov it was axiomatic that it was necessary, indeed urgent, not only for the Orthodox Church but for Christianity as a whole to engage in conversation with the modern world, its institutions, consciousness, and inhabitants. All of the rapid developments that had produced modernity were diagnosed by Bulgakov not as evil but as the present situation of God's working with and in creation. Like the Greek fathers of the church more than a millennium before him, Bulgakov recognized the human capacity for destruction and evil but - being a kind of theological optimist, in the best, deepest sense - he saw God as stronger, the ultimate victor in Christ's Incarnation, death and Resurrection. Like, among others, Gregory of Nyssa and Origen before him, Bulgakov considered the final restoration of all creation (apokatastasis) as at least the object of prayer and hope and, while not appropriate for dogmatizing, such restoration was nonetheless more consonant with the boundless compassion...

Ben Fulford Theology

The other people who have helped with this edition are numerous. First, there is each contributor. It seems amazing to us that all 42 chapters were actually produced, and I know that for many it was a considerable extra demand in already busy lives. I am most grateful for the quality of what has been written and for the patience shown to the editors when they demanded sometimes extensive changes. Then there is Ben Fulford, who has done such a thorough job on revising and updating the glossary. A special word of thanks is due to those who collaborated with contributors to previous editions who could not revise their contributions themselves Ethna Regan, A. M. Allchin, and Peter C. Bouteneff. Rebecca Harkin, Laura Barry, Sophie Gibson, and others at Blackwell have been continually helpful and responded promptly to inquiries. There have been valuable conversations with a large number of colleagues in this fascinating field. Doreen Kunze has been a source of unfailing and encouragingly...

Ethics

Remains a series of 13 manuscripts that Bonhoeffer himself had not yet arranged in any final form before his death. Themes joust with one another for prominence. A few, however, stand out, both for their distinctiveness and for their extension and development of conversations already begun.

What are parables

Parables are sayings that teach truth by comparison. The word parable means a placing alongside of a parallel, comparison or similitude. In scripture it is a story drawn from nature or human circumstances to teach a moral or spiritual truth. The meaning of the parable has to be studied - it is not the story that is of value but the lesson it teaches. There is a comparison being made and the hearer has to perceive the likeness of the things compared to learn the lesson. Much of Jesus' teaching was in parables because parables have a double use - they reveal the truth to those who want it, and conceal it from those who do not (CP V10-17). V11-15 do not teach as some suppose that Jesus deliberately withheld the truth from the Pharisees so that they could not get saved. The Pharisees wilfully rejected the truth, causing it to be veiled from them because they had hardened their hearts to it. They did not want to be converted to Christ. To be interpreted correctly parables must be studied...

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