1. For further study of the topics treated in these chapters, the reader may consult the following works by the same author: " America Latina y conciencia cristiana,"Cuadernos IPLA, no.8, Quito, 1970 (French versión inEspin:t, 7-8,1965, pp. 2-20); "Iberoamérica en la historia universal," Revista de Occidente, 1965, 25:85-95; "Cultura, cultura latinoamericana y cultura nacional," Cuyo (UNC Mendoza), 4 (1968), pp. 4-40; Historia de 14 Iglesia en América Latina (Barcelona: Nova Terra, 1974); El humanismo semita (Buenos Aires: Eudeba, 1969); "From Secularization to Secularism: Science from the Renaissance to the Enlighten-ment,"in Concilium, no.47 (New York: Paulist, 1969), pp. 93-119; Para una historia del catolicismo popular en Argentina (Buenos Aires: Cuadernos Bonum, 1970); Les évéques latinoaméricains, defenseurs de rindien (1504-1620) (Wiesbaden: Steiner,

1970);Para una de-strucción de 14 historia de la ética (Paraná: Universidad del Litoral,

1971); Para una ética de la liberación latinoamericana, 3 vols. (Buenos Aires; Siglo XXI, 1973); Método para una filosofía de la liberación (Salamanca: Sigueme, 1974), "Domination-Liberation," in Concilium, no.96 (New York: Herder, 1974), pp. 34-56.

xiii to the Second Spanish-language Printing

The first printing of this unpretentious little book was sold out in a few months. This suggests that there is a growing interest in everything that is distinctively our own-not only in the topics treated but also in the methodology employed. Since I delivered a second series of lectures in 1972, this volume has now become the first volume in a series. The second volume, Ethics and the Theology of Liberation, is to appear in the near future. It will probe more deeply into topics that were merely alluded to in this present volume. In the years to come I hope to continue this annual lecture series and to shed greater light on the critical questions that now face Latin American Christians who seek to involve themselves in a committed way with the poor and with the whole process of liberation.

The criticism directed against our Latin American theology, which my friend Gustavo Gutierrez was the first to call the "theology of liberation," suggests that there is something solid to it after all. Some months ago a group of Christian thinkers from Latin America gathered at the tomb of Philip II in El Escorial. (Our statements and conclusions have been published by the house of Sigueme in Salamanca: Fe cristiana y cambio social en América Latina, 1973.) There our views were heard by people from the very xv nations that had conquered us a few centuries ago. They listened to us attentively and even admiringly. This positive attitude suggests that Europe is beginning to glimpse in our Christian reflection-poor in material resources but rich in reality-a new phase in world theology .

This short book is a sketchy historical contribution to that theology. Volume 2 will provide a more systematic reflection on the theology of praxis, the theology of politics, and theological epistemology.

The whole job remains to be done, not because nothing has been done but because each generation must do the whole job over again, particularly when the situation is as critical as that of Latin America. Each generation must start from its novel situation; it must use its liberty created in order to effect and live out a new moment in the one and only history there is: the history of messianic liberation, the history of salvation. Traditionalism imitates and astutely tries to reconcile the irreconcilable; tradition lives the newness of creation, the unending re-creation effected by our Liberator, who is Other than any sort of closed, prefabricated totality. This is a discontinuous, critical moment which keeps pushing human beings forward when they try to wallow in their achievements of injustice and oppression.

Here in the Cathedral of Lima, near the tomb of Toribio de Mogrovejo and not far from the tomb of the half-breed Martin de Porres, who was not allowed into the Dominican choir, I express my belief in the liberation of Latin America. And I look forward to it hopefully as a sign of our es-chatological liberation.

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