against the infidel, they spread the true faith of Mohammed. However, the Catholic Church not only survived under Ottoman rule but, through the work of its missionaries, even Catholic reform arrived in Turkish lands. The tolerance, or rather indifference, of the Turks for their Christian subject came, however, at a heavy price: Christians had to pay a burdensome poll tax. To avoid this tax, more and more Albanian and Bosnian peasants converted to Islam, as their hopes of Christian reconquest were not fulfilled. This Islamization of the Balkans had lasting consequences. In the northern provinces, however, in Ottoman Hungary, Transylvania, Wallachia, and Moldavia, conversions remained exceptions: these countries kept their Christian identity.

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