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willing to compromise, which made him objectionable in the eyes of such fellow Lutherans as Matthias Flacius Illyricus.22 Tensions over what constituted adiaphora remained.

The Catholic Church

Today historians discuss whether the label Counter-Reformation has any validity.23 In the flowering of Catholic preaching from the middle of the sixteenth century, however, I still choose to see a certain urgent acknowledgment that Protestant pedagogical tools must be adopted and adapted in order to prevent the further spread of 'heresy'. The Society of Jesus and the Capuchins honed their homiletic skills, developing formal methods of training for those who would go out as missionaries to the common people of Europe. As a result of the Catholic Church's new emphasis on preaching, despite the remaining centrality of the traditional mass, the elaborate and costly pulpit became a Catholic symbol too.

The post-Tridentine Catholic Church strove not so much to revise Catholic ceremony as to make it uniform. The so-called Tridentine Missal was its first effort to ensure liturgical purity. In 1588 Sixtus V founded the Congregation of Sacred Rites, which was to oversee the introduction and maintenance of approved practice. Finally, the Rituale Romanum of 1614 laid down a pattern for the mass that contained the long-familiar core and that remained fundamentally intact until the second Vatican Council. Eliminated in the improved rubrics were the most fanciful of the local and regional tropes that had crept in over many centuries, as well as nearly all votive masses.24 The Church also cast a disapproving eye at retables and statues whose contents hinted at unorthodoxy. Carlo Borromeo (1538-84), Archbishop of Milan, who after his death came to be regarded as a model bishop and was canonized in 1610, set out regulations governing everything from the running of the bishop's own household to the interior decoration of churches.25 His influence was considerable. Nonetheless, the political obstacles and the popular defence of custom meant that much remained as it had before. Foremost among the aspirations of the missionizing orders, whether in southern Germany, France,

22 Manschreck, Melanchthon, pp. 287-92; Scheible, Melanchthon: Eine Biographie, pp. 196-201, 218-26.

23 O'Malley, Trent and all that.

24 The indispensable work on the history of the mass is Jungmann, The mass of the Roman rite.

25 Deroo, Saint Charles Borromee.

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