the religious, and the other, through the physical setting of the Tiber, to the pope.
The polemic of Reformation prints most often operated through oppositions, which were articulated in the visual terms of gesture, facial expression, and relations between figures. The woodcut, 'The Godly Mill', for instance, articulated contrast through the language ofplacement: those who were 'evangelical', Erasmus and Luther, were close to the gospels, and the cardinals, monks, and curia, signalled by their habits, were remote. Lucas Cranach the Elder's Passional Christi und Antichristi, a series of thirteen paired woodcuts published in Wittenberg in 1521, contrasted Christ's gesture, demeanour, and relation to his followers, to those of the pope (Fig. 1). It was all the more effective for recalling the thousands of images of Christ's humility and poverty, so familiar to Christians from their own churches, and articulating explicitly in line and placement how papal gesture, conduct, demeanour, dress, and court contrasted. Some Dutch engravings contrasted the two major forms of papal idolatry — the mass and the use of images in worship — to Reformed iconoclasm, which removed altars as well as images. Many polemical prints heightened the contrast through the exaggeration of gesture or the addition of physical attributes, such as a belly, that connoted inner character.
Gesture, facial expression, and relations between figures were also the corporeal language of devotion. Even as they contrasted evangelical demeanour and bearing to the superstitious attending mass, Protestant printed images depicted the proper demeanour of the faithful, as in those that showed the pious listening to evangelical preachers. In some broadsheets, the audience stands, in some the women are seated on the floor, but in all their persons are oriented towards the pulpit, their faces turned upward towards the preacher's face and mouth. Hands are folded in the laps of the seated, neither holding rosary beads nor knitting. On the evangelical side of these prints, no one prays the rosary, speaks to a neighbour, knits, carves, and/or performs any other forms of manual production.
Images 'spoke' in a language rich in allusion to other images. A particular position of the head or hand, rendered in line or shadow, pointed to other images in other media; the outlined forms of shepherds or lambs 'represented' figures the viewer had seen in colour and mass elsewhere. Painted and sculpted images might refer to an arrangement of figures, a background, a particular rendering of Christ's agency in printed biblical illustrations, caricatures, or broadsheets; wooden retables reproduced the gestures, figural arrangements, and facial expressions of biblical illustrations. All images, whether printed, painted, or sculpted, moreover, in capturing a gesture, an angle of the head,
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