stated summarily, and the objections verged on caricature. Nonetheless, there are two points worth remarking in Ricci's anti-Buddhist refutation: Greek philosophy, especially Plato, served as his intellectual foundation; and Confucian social ethics was invoked as a new ally in this battle against Buddhism.

The new alliance with Confucianism, as we have seen, acquired an intellectual content, as Ricci and his closest Chinese Christian associates developed a Christianized Confucianism as the intellectual template for conversion. Invoking the authority of the Song dynasty neo-Confucian master Zhu Xi, who was himself critical of Buddhism, served to double the new legitimacy claimed by the Jesuit mission. This strategy of conversion - 'to cleanse pure Confucianism of Buddhist corruption', 'to harmonize Christianity and Confucianism' -had different effects. For sympathetic literati, such as Yang, Xu, Li, and many others of their generation, it served as the intellectual justification for conversion. For sceptical literati, such as Wang Zheng, it was nothing but a disguise to undermine tradition and introduce a foreign evil. For Buddhists, it amounted to a declaration of war. The Jesuit/Christian polemic against Buddhism provoked a spirited rejoinder: three works by leading monks, the Tianshuo (c. 1615) by Zhuhong (1535-1615), the Pixie ji (1643) by Ouyi Zhixu (1599-1665), and the Piantian sanshuo by Miyun Yuanwu (1566-1642); and the influential collection Poxieji (1640) by the layman Xu Changzhi.46

All of these works, of course, appeared after the death of Ricci. Instigated by his attack, the Christian-Buddhist polemic reached a climax in the years between 1610 and 1640. This period witnessed the publication and compilation of the major Buddhist anti-Christian treatises, as well as the most extensive Christian refutations of Buddhism, the Tianshi mingbian, 'Clear Discussion on Heaven and Buddhism' (1621) by Yang Tingyun and the Pi Shishi zhuwang, A Critique of the Various Errors of Buddhism' by Xu Guangqi.47 With the Manchu conquest, a new epoch cooled polemical passions. No anti-Christian tracts seemed to have been composed by Buddhists after 1648, while only a handful of specifically anti-Buddhist treatises were published, all by Chinese converts.48

46 On this literature, see the introductory remarks in HCC, vol. 1: 635-1800, pp. 5iiff; Kern, Buddhistische Kritik am Christentum im China;Shi Shengyan, Mingmo Zhongguo Fojiao zi yanjiu, pp. 49-56; Cha Shijie, 'Ming mo fojiao dui Tianzhu jiao de pi xie yun dong chu tan.'

47 For editions of Yang's work, see Standaert, YangTingyun, p. 69. HCC argues that Pi Shishi zhuwangwas an attributed work and not actually by Xu, composed probably after i670. There is, however, no supporting argument to this assertion. See HCC, p. 617.

48 The works in question are: 1. Shen mi pian, 'On awakening from confusion' (1667) by Luo Guangpin; 2. Pi lueshuo tiaobo, 'Abridged refutation of several disputable points' (i589), compiled by Zhang Xingyao and Hong Ji. There is a detailed discussion in D. E.

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