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the pasha that Benlich was a subject of the sultan rather than a 'suspicious person' from outside the Turkish Empire.

As a result ofthe strengthening ofthe Catholic Church in Habsburg Hungary, by the mid-seventeenth century the bishops living there were able to exercise greater influence on the Hungarian territories under Turkish rule, too. Bishops living in the Habsburg part of the country appointed vicars for the Turkish area. Generally, these vicars were missionaries: Franciscan or Jesuit monks who directed parish priests and churches on behalf of the bishops. The Bishop of Vac, Andras Tarnoczy (d. 1655), planned to travel in disguise through the villages of his diocese under Turkish rule, but in the end he only reached as far as the Ottoman-Hungarian border. In 1675, Gyorgy Pongracz, Bishop of Vac, summoned a diocesan synod for priests living under Turkish rule, which was held in the first fortress beyond the border, in the immediate vicinity of Ottoman Hungary.

The Habsburg emperors also appointed bishops to Bosnia - generally speaking, priests living in Vienna. For this reason, the Bosnian missionary bishops appointed by the pope received the titles of other dioceses nearby (Scardona, Duvno). The missionary bishops of Belgrade directed the dioceses in Ottoman Hungary as apostolic vicars (appointed directly by the pope) in place of the absent bishops, living in exile in Habsburg Hungary. The Bosnian missionary bishops did the same in the Bosnian diocese.

Just as the bishops appointed by the Habsburgs were unable to enter the Turkish territories, so too were they prohibited from entering the Turkish sultan's Calvinist vassal, the Principality of Transylvania. Thus in 1618, Gabriel Bethlen, Prince of Transylvania (1613-29), placed a canon with the title of general vicar at the head of Transylvanian Catholics, who then governed the orphaned diocese of Transylvania in lieu of a bishop - although as a non-bishop he was unable to ordain priests. In terms of ecclesiastical law, it is quite extraordinary that a secular ruler - moreover a Calvinist one! - should appoint a Catholic bishop's vicar, but this solution proved to be both wise and lasting. Nevertheless, the Transylvanian Catholics were in need of a consecrated bishop. Therefore in 1668 the pope consecrated the Franciscan missionary Kazmer Damokos (1606-78) as Bishop of Koron in Greece, simultaneously nominating him as the apostolic vicar of Transylvania. However, Damokos, Transylvania's only missionary bishop, was required to keep his title of bishop secret from the Prince of Transylvania.

The Holy Congregation for the Propagation of Faith was entitled to appoint 'in partibus infidelium' Latin bishops to the Greek territories under Turkish rule: this was how the aforementioned Transylvanian missionary bishop

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