What I7 Discipline

the development of seignorial chapels and suburban temples. There was also the Protestant occupation of buildings that were theoretically still Catholic, or the celebration of mass within the walls of a totally isolated monastery in the middle of a Lutheran city, as in Strasbourg.

The conflicts, the negotiations, and the accommodations regarding places ofworship, however, only generated part of the conflict between confessions about the symbolic use of space. It is therefore necessary to remember the importance of tensions that surrounded the question of burial and funeral marches or processions. These tensions arose because rival confessions tried to keep for themselves these particular forms ofpublic expressions offaith that translated into the appropriation of territory, the rogation of sacralizing space, the visible delimitation of the community of believers.35 In many Protestant-controlled areas the processions, and particularly that of Corpus Christi, which associated religious definition of the community with the eucharistic miracle, were forbidden:36 in Augsburg, for example, from 1555 to 1606, or again in La Rochelle afterthe Edict of Nantes. In 1599, the magistrate of La Rochelle agreed to concede the question of the mass and to authorize it anew, but he obstinately refused to let the Catholics of the city restart their processions. Similarly, it is possible to note in many Catholic territories and cities the increase in disruption of Protestant funerals: in 1563, for example, the Protestants of Macon petitioned the governor Gaspard de Saulx-Tavannes for a place 'where they can bring and bury the dead in all safety, peace, and modesty', in keeping with the Edict of Amboise. Tavannes conceded and gave them the place called Saint-Etienne, outside the walls, on condition that they did not meet in a group of more than eight people at a time, that they abstained from singing and from sermons, and that they made do with burials 'at daybreak'. In France, the story of the pacifications is often mixed with that of the invention, in law but also in the practice of local actors, of compromise on these at once banal and controversial, simple, and inextricable questions: to authorize the Catholics to organize their processions without forcing the Protestants to join them, even passively; to let the Protestants bury their dead without upsetting Catholic customs and their concern for being buried in consecrated and possibly ad sanctos ground, in the church, close to the relics. But it is precisely their nature of compromise, of provisional agreements that were always at the mercy of a sudden change in the balance of power, that rendered confessional coexistence in the sixteenth century so fragile in the face ofthe deepening ofthe confessional disagreements

35 Koslofsky, The reformation of the dead; and Luria, 'Separated by death?'

36 Duffy, The stripping of the altars, particularly pp. 43-4.

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