New religious orders for men

Historians stress what is new in history, so the new religious orders of the Catholic Reformation attract more attention than reform movements in the older traditional orders of monks and friars. Since these older orders were much larger than most new orders, their efforts to reform probably contributed even more to reforming Catholicism. Some older orders, however, virtually disappeared. The crusading orders in Baltic lands, Spain and Portugal largely lost their reason for existence, and civic...

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Orthodox communities in the Mediterranean, Middle East, and the Balkans developed differently. Under Pope Gregory XIII (1572 85) the Greeks who were united with Rome received a special Creed where filioque, purgatory, and transubstantiation were included, and the autonomy of patriarchs within a united church was not stated. Sixtus V went further to subject Orthodox Christians to Roman supremacy. In a letter to Gabriel, the Coptic Patriarch, he wrote 'You have to understand that the Roman Church...

The Second Wave Of Protestant Expansion

Kirk, James (ed.), The second book of discipline (Edinburgh St Andrew Press, 1980). Knox, John, History of the Reformation in Scotland. Ed. William Croft Dickinson, 2 vols. (London Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1949). Benedict, Philip, Rouen during the wars ofreligion (Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1981). The Huguenot population of France, 1600-1685 The demographic fate and customs ofa religious minority. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 18, part 5 (Philadelphia,...

Medieval traditions

Visitation reports from a number of European regions, dating back to the mid-sixteenth century and offering an insight into the educational levels ofthe clergy on the eve of the Reformation, record an urgent need for improvement. Much was left to be desired regarding the theological training of both the lower clergy and those theologians who, although ordained to higher orders, served merely as holders of benefices and failed to carry out their spiritual duties. Similar deficits existed...

Persecutions And Martyrdom

Allen, William , Briefe Historie of the Glorious Martyrdom of XII Reverend Priests ( Rheims Jean Foigny , 1582). Aussbund Etlicher sch ner Christlicher Geseng . . . (n.p., 1583). Chauncy, Maurice, Historia aliquot nostri saeculi martyrum cumpiis tum lectujucunda nunquam antehac typis excusa (Mainz Franciscus Behem, 1550). Circignani, Niccolo, Ecclesiae militantis triumphi sive Deo amabilium martyrum gloriosa pro Christi fide Certamina . . . ( Rome Franciscus Zannettus , 1583). Ecclesiae...

Piarists And Jesuits

With confraternities which helped the poor and taught catechism. Although the Jesuit colleges scattered through Italy did not charge tuition, they did demand that prospective students could read and write. Seldom could working-class parents pay for elementary schooling, so their children usually could not attend Jesuit schools. Here was an obvious need, and Calasanz together with some companions started a school at Rome that taught poor students the four Rs - religion, reading, writing and...

Coda

In keeping with the dominant orientation of the historiography on science and religion, this brief survey has focused mostly on the impact of religion on science, as studied especially by historians of science. It would take another kind of expertise to disentangle the role of science from among the many forces shaping changes in religion in the early modern period, but the new confidence in scientific explanation was no doubt an important factor driving the rationalization of religion and the...

The Catholic Reformation

The response of the Catholic Church to the Protestant Reformation is often described as two interrelated movements. One, a Counter-Reformation that attempted to win territory and people back to loyalty to Rome and prevent further spread of Protestant ideas, and the other a reform of abuses and problems within the Catholic Church that had been recognized as problems by many long before the Protestant Reformation. Thus the Catholic Reformation was both a continuation of medieval reform movements...

Redefining Catholicism Trent and beyond

About four o'clock on the afternoon of 4 December 1563, the 235 voting members of the Council of Trent processed from the Palazzo Thun across to the cathedral where the Bishop of Catania celebrated the Mass of the Holy Spirit. There followed a vote approving overwhelmingly the five reform decrees that had been formulated in the previous weeks. Next, the full text of the doctrinal decrees that the council had approved over the last eighteen years was read out, followed by the initial paragraphs...

Kenneth Mills

I enquire in this chapter into what images of Christ, the Virgin and other saints meant to the emergence and 'fruition' of local Andean Christianities in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.1 On one level, saints were the favourite creatures of churchmen and colonial officials and thus might seem to have invited the 'withering' and 'erasure' of native Andean forms before the force, 'surveillance and discipline' of Spanish Christian impositions.2 They were approved patrons of lay groups and...

Luther and reform

The catalyst of the Protestant Reformation was the German Augustinian monk and university professor, Martin Luther (1483-1546). In the late medieval church, calls for renewal were loud and persistent and some reforms were enacted in monastic orders, in church life, and in popular movements associated with the names of John Wyclif (1384-1443) and John Hus (1369-1415). Compared with those strident voices, Martin Luther's invitation to an academic debate on the power of indulgences in 1517 was a...

Lee Palmer Wandel

The theology of Incarnation and the visual arts Any consideration of the visual arts in the Reformation must begin with the Incarnation.1 Throughout their history, Christians have struggled with what it means that, in the words of the Gospel of John, 'the Word was made flesh' (1 14, KJV). The Incarnation overthrew the opposition many different schools of classical thought, from the presocratics through the Stoics, had posited of flesh to spirit, matter to mind. For no Christian could 'flesh',...

Andrea Alciati Witch Hunts

(Apologia Dodi contra li defensori de le strie Pavia, 1506), and with Bernardo Rategno (c. 1450-1510), the chief Inquisitor of the diocese of Como, one of those responsible for the Italian persecutions raised his voice, adding many new examples to the debate (Bernard of Como, De Strigibus, 1508). There was a political rift between the church and states that tried to curb witch hunts wherever possible, for instance the Republic of Venice. This conflict was mirrored in the intellectual sphere for...

German Protestantism to the death of Martin Luther

The Smalkaldic League's life coincided with the final fifteen years of Martin Luther's life. During these years, Protestant princes and magistrates suppressed Catholic worship, expelled pastors, dissolved the convents, and redirected ecclesiastical properties to other purposes - public or dynastic established evangelical (Lutheran) doctrine as the sole norm of preaching and practice introduced reformed orders of worship and forbade all others began to form an official regime for their churches...

What I7 Discipline

The development of seignorial chapels and suburban temples. There was also the Protestant occupation of buildings that were theoretically still Catholic, or the celebration of mass within the walls of a totally isolated monastery in the middle of a Lutheran city, as in Strasbourg. The conflicts, the negotiations, and the accommodations regarding places ofworship, however, only generated part of the conflict between confessions about the symbolic use of space. It is therefore necessary to...

Protestantism and science

The historiography on science and religion originated during the early decades ofthe reception of Darwin when religious objections to the theory of evolution were intense. The debate is best known for the conflict thesis articulated bluntly by John William Draper, The History of the Conflict between Science and Religion (1874) and somewhat moderated by Andrew Dickson White, A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom (1896). But those same decades elicited some equally...

Christianity

The Cambridge History of Christianity offers a comprehensive chronological account of the development of Christianity in all its aspects - theological, intellectual, social, political, regional, global -from its beginnings to the present day Each volume makes a substantial contribution in its own right to the scholarship of its period and the complete History constitutes a major work of academic reference. Far from being merely a history of Western European Christianity and its offshoots, the...

Music And Religious Change

Baini, Giuseppe, Memorie storico-critiche della vita e delle opere di Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina Rome Dalla Societa tipografica, 1828 . Luther, Martin, Table talk. Trans.William Hazlitt London Fount Harper Collins, 1995 . Robinson, Hastings ed. , The Zurich letters comprising the correspondence of several English bishops and others with some of the Helvetian reformers, during the early part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1842 . Stetten, Paul von,...

Series

Congregationis de Propaganda Fide Ecclesiam Catholicam Ucrainae et Bielorusijae spectan-tia. Ed. A. Welykyi. 4 vols. Rome, P. P. Basiliani, 1953- . Bibliotheca reformatoria Neerlandica. Ed. Samuel Cramer and Fredrik Pijper. 10 vols. 's-Gravenhage M. Nijhoff, 1903-14 . Bibliotheca sanctorum, 12 vols. Rome Citta nuova editrice, 1961-9 , Index 1970 , 2 appendix vols. 1987, 2000 . Calvin, John, Ioannis Calvini Opera quae supersunt omnia. Ed. G. Baum, E. Cunitz et al. 59 vols. Braunschweig...

Gabriella Zarri

During the Renaissance and early modernperiod, female religious life emerged with extreme vivacity. Scholars agree that both the socio-economic and juridical condition of women's lives deteriorated during the Renaissance. They also agree that religion, on the other hand, provided a means for different forms of female affirmation to offset and even-out the misogynist cultural currents that were present and driven by churches.1 Socially, sanctity was valued and was pursued both by licit means,...

Nicolas Standaert

There are different ways of writing the history of the expansion of Christianity and its evangelization of the non-Christian world. The common approach is to write it from the perspective of the European missionary, whereby the process of Christianization is primarily perceived as the result of the missionary's action. Another approach is to take the receiving community as the starting point of discussion thereby emphasizing this community's role as an active participant in the conversion...

Theology and impact of reform

Martin Luther did not have a theology in the form of a coherent system that a professor would publish or deliver to students. The Reformation, however, made Luther a more comprehensive theologian than he would have become if his output had been limited to biblical lectures. For the most part, his theology was shaped by the course of reform and the opposition it provoked, and Luther realized it very well. In the preface to his German writings published in 1539, Luther boasted that the assaults...

Mikhail V Dmitriev

Throughout the Middle Ages, the relationships between Western and Eastern Christianity were characterized by two tendencies. On the one hand, there was estrangement, while on the other hand, there were the links between Rome and the Eastern churches, as well as between Catholics and Orthodox people in all European countries, that were never interrupted and sometimes even intensified. Both tendencies were reflected in the history of the Florentine Union 1438-9 , which was the last attempt in the...

Contributors

Wolfgang Behringer is Professor of Modern History at the University of Saarbr cken, Germany Philip Benedict is Professor of Church History at the University of Geneva, Switzerland. Robert Bireley, SJ is Professor of History at Loyola University Chicago, USA. Ann Blair is Professor of History at Harvard University, USA. Peter Blickle is Emeritus Professor of Modern History at the University of Bern, Switzerland. Miriam Bodiam is Associate Professor ofJewish History at Touro College, USA. Thomas...

Conclusion

At root, the radicals' disagreement with the mainline reformers was a disagreement about what was wrong with medieval Catholicism, that is, what needed reforming. For Luther, the fundamental problem was works righteousness and the oppressed conscience. The Catholic demand that sinners should earn their own salvation exceeded the ability of fallen humanity. Because of the Fall, humans endured a bondage of the will that prevented any good work untainted by sin. The greater the effort to earn...

Lactatio Virginis

In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, both within the convents, where the institutional version prevailed, and without, where the charismatic aspect was rather more present, a particular form of female teaching, which we could define as spiritual maternity, was present and active as a recognized element of sanctity. It is well known, in fact, that a nun from the convent of Santa Croce in Brescia was considered mother by Gaetano da Thiene, one of the founders of the Order of the Clerics...