1 Atkinson goes on to argue that this moral definition of virginity prevailed in the later Middle Ages "because of the experience and reputations of the late medieval saints."

2 For a helpful introduction to this scholarly debate, see the Introduction to Karant-Nunn and Wesiner-Hanks (2003).

3 Both Augustine and Jerome were writing against Jovinian who - alone in this period - considered the married state equal to virginity. Both Pope Siricius and Ambrose had condemned this "heresy" and Jerome had written Adveruss Jovinianum exalting virginity. Augustine felt that he needed to refute Jovinian's position whilst retaining the dignity of marriage.

4 There was a Roman Catholic response, but not until 1527 when Conrad Kollin, prior of the Dominican monastery at Cologne, published his Refutation of the Lutheran Wedding Song. But Luther does not seem to have taken any notice of it.

5 But see, for a different perspective, Jordan (1997) and Jordan (2002: 76-106).

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