Notes

1 Westberg (1994); Novak (1998); Stout (1992). For accounts congenial with that offered here, see especially Nelson (1992); Hall (1994) and above all Bowlin (1999).

2 Although all things are subject in some way to God's providence (ST I-II.91.2c.), irrational creatures cannot participate in the rationality of God's providence, or its specifically legal character, so that in animals God's providence "cannot be called law except by similitude" (ST I-II.91.2 ad 2). Oddly for us moderns, natural physical law as constructed by modern science - say Newton's law of motion - also cannot properly be called law by Aquinas's lights. It too lacks the prudence of a ruler.

3 For hints in this direction, see Butler (1993: 31-44), with accompanying notes.

4 For a particularly dynamic, change-oriented account of Aristotle, see Lear (1988: 15-25).

5 Form gives existence to matter. Aquinas, De principiis naturae, 2.

6 For matter is that in which form and privation (or construction and passion) are understood. De principiis naturae, 2.

7 Cf. Aquinas, De principiis naturae, 2.

8 This may grant too much to natural law, since "not all virtuous acts are prescribed by the natural law," I-II.94.3 in fin.

9 Cf. ST I.92.1: whether an effect of law is to make human beings good.

10 "Idolatriae poenam," In Rom. 1:28, #151; cf. also v. 24, #139; v. 28, #153. I cite by verse and paragraph number from the Marietti edition of Super Epistolas Sancti Pauli Lectura (Thomas Aquinas 1953).

"Nam vera Dei cognitio quantum est de se inducit homines ad bonum, sed ligatur, quasi cap-tivitate detenta, per iniustiae affectum," In Rom. 1:18, #112.

"Est autem notandum quod satis rationabiliter Apostolus vitia contra naturam, quae sunt gravis-sima inter peccata carnalia, ponit idolatriae poenam, quia simul cum idolatria incepisse videntur, scilicet temporae Abrahae, quando creditur idolatria incoepisse. Unde et tunc primo leguntur in Sodomitis punita fuisse, ut Gen. XIX. Simul etiam idolatria crescente, huiusmodi vitia creverunt." In Rom. 1:27, #151.

In Rom. 1:18, #109; ST I-II.57-8, as interpreted in Rogers (1996). De principiis naturae, 2.

In post. anal., bk. 1, lect. 4, no. 7; Chenu (1957: 71-3 n. 1). I owe my attention to it to Jeffrey Stout, who learned it from Victor Preller. "Natura hominis potest dici vel illa quae est propria homini: et secundum hoc, omnia peccata, inquantum sunt contra rationem, sunt etiam contra naturam, ut patet per Damascenum, in II libro. Vel illa quae est communis homini et aliis animalibus: et secundum hoc, quaedam specialia peccata dicuntur esse contra naturam, sicut contra commixtionem maris et feminae quae est naturalis omnibus animalibus, est concubitus masculorum, quod specialiter dicitur vitium contra naturam" (I-II.94.2 ad 2). But note that this is said in answer to an objection. The question asks whether all acts of virtue are in accord with natural law, and the objection points out that only some vices are called vices specifically "against nature." In reply, Thomas is licensing, or supplying the rationale for, a prior linguistic usage that does not particularly fit with his way of putting things, but has biblical and traditional support. In the corpus of the article, Thomas catalogues the view in two lines, but does not reason from it: "Secundo inest homini inclinatio ad aliqua magis specialia, secundum naturam in qua communicat cum ceteris animalibus. Et secundum hoc, dicuntur ea esse de lege naturali 'quae natura omnia animalia docuit,' ut est coniunctio maris et feminae, et educatio liberorum, et similia" (I-II.94.2 post med). In the Romans commentary, note the absence of a homosexual orientation. Same-sex sexual activity is something into which "human beings," and not just homosexually oriented people, may be expected to fall as soon as God removes the grace that prevents them; strictly speaking, same-sex sexuality is as (un)natural as falling: "Sed [Deus] indirecte tradit homines in peccatum, in quantum iuste subtrahit gratiam per quam homines continebantur ne peccarent" (In Rom. 1.24, #139). 'Alio modo dicitur esse aliquid contra naturam hominis ratione generis, quod est animal. Manifesturm est autem quod, secundum naturae intentionem, commixtio sexuum in animalibus ordinatur ad actum generationis, unde omnis commixtionis modus, ex quo generatio sequi non potest, est contra naturam hominis inquantum est animal. Et secundum hoc dicitur in Glossa 'naturalis usus est ut vir et mulier in uno concubito ceant, contra naturam vero ut masculus masculum polluat et mulier mulierem.' Et eadem ratio est de omni actu coitus ex quo generatio sequi non potest" (In Rom. 1.26, #149).

"Mendacium nominator ex eo quod contra mentem dicitur" (II-II.110.1).

"Cum enim voces sint signa naturaliter intellectuum, innaturale est et indebitum quod aliquis voce significet id quod non habet in mente" (II-II.110.3).

"Mendacium non solum habet rationem peccati ex damno quod infert proximo, sed ex sua inor-dinatione" (II-II.110.3 ad 4).

"Opus exterius naturaliter significat intentionem" (II-II.111.2 ad 1).

"Veritas dicitur secundum quod signa concordant signatis" (II-II.111.3 ad 2).

"Quae quidem manifestatio, sive enuntiatio, est rationis actus conferentis signum ad signatum"

"Unde etsi bruta animalia aliquid manifestent, non tamen manifestationem indendunt, sed naturali instinctu aliquid agunt ad quod manifestatio sequitur" (II-II.110.1).

"Lex naturalis nihil aliud est quam participatio legis aeternae in rationali creatura" (I-2.91.2c in fin).

27 "In creatura autem irrationali non participator rationaliter: inde non potest dici lex nisi per similitudinem" (I-II.91.2 ad 3 in fin).

28 "Inter cetera autem rationalis creatura excellentiori quodam modo divinae providentiae subi-acet, inquantum et ipsa fit providentiae particeps, sibi ipsi et aliis providens" (I-II.91c in med).

29 Collationes in decem precepta, collected in various editions with the Opuscula. Critical edition in Torrell (1985a: 5-40, 227-63); ET in Torrell (1985b).

30 Proverbs 27.17, quoted by Aquinas to close De perfectione spiritualis vitae (ch. 30). I follow the Hebrew rather than the Vulgate.

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