1 Though it may be noted that Irenaeus of Lyons (c. 130-c. 200) unusually - if not uniquely -thought that Adam and Eve were created as children and had to grow to adulthood before they could procreate. See Irenaeus (1996: 455; Against Heresies, 3.22.4).
2 Though some have thought that Christ was born by a kind of miraculous Caesarean section, which left Mary perfectly intact.
3 I am grateful to Tina Beattie for bringing this text to my attention. For her own discussion of the passage see Beattie (2006: 170-3). Balthasar's ejaculatory image of the resurrection is not entirely without precedence. It can be related to a Germanic tradition in "low" culture and "high" art which associated resurrection with penile erection. See Steinberg (1996: 315-17).
4 Infamously, Augustine saw humanity's fallen state figured in the unruliness of the male member, which seems to have a life of its own. In paradise, Adam's sex was completely ruled by his will, and he copulated - if he did copulate - without lust; sex without concupiscence. See Augustine (1998: 623-7; The City of God, XIV23-4).
5 For example see Bynum (1991: 79-117) and the response in Steinberg (1996: 364-89).
6 This is a version of an argument borrowed from Tina Beattie's reading of Balthasar's fearful theology (Beattie 2006). Balthasarian man lives under erasure once he comes to see "all created Being as essentially feminine when compared to the Creator God" (Balthasar 1986a: 214). Balthasar's strange, contradictory and often simply daft theology arises from trying to evade this disappearance.
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