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B. Ziegenbalg, Geneology of South Indian Gods (New Delhi: Unity Book Service, 1984), p. 22. 8 G. U. Pope, The Tiruvacagam (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1900).

T. E. Slater, The Higher Hinduism in Relation to Christianity: Certain Aspects of Hindu Thought from a Christian Standpoint (London: Elliott Stock, 1902). o R. A. Hume, Missions from the Modern View (New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1905). J. P. Jones, India: Its Life and Thought (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1908).

(1860-1921)11, J. N. Farquhar (1861-1929), C. F. Andrews (1871-1940) and E. Stanley Jones (1884-1973) are most remarkable for their positive approach to India and its heritage. They affirmed the universal witness of God, studied the Indian religious traditions and pointed out visions and ideas akin to Christian ones. Some of them developed the model of the fulfilment in Christ of what is in Hinduism. Farquhar made extensive studies of Hindu traditions, scriptures and modern religious movements and the fulfilment model is particularly associated with him. His famous book The Crown of Hinduism demonstrated how Christianity was the fulfilment of all types of religions and particularly the crown of evolutionary Hinduism. Taking insights from the theory of evolution and Jesus' insistence that he came 'not to destroy but to fulfil', Farquhar declared that

Christ is already breathing life into the Hindu people. He does not come to destroy. To him all that is great and good is dear: the noble art of India, the power and spirituality of its best literature, the beauty and simplicity of Hindu village life, the love and tenderness of the Hindu home, the devotion and endurance of the ascetic schools.12

He held that the New Testament must be the central sun, in the light of which all other scriptures and teachings should be assessed. Though he allowed that the great scriptures were set like stars around the sun and could be considered as supplementary to the Hebrew Bible, he did not want to lose the historical connections and significance of its message.

Andrews worked in close association with great figures like Tagore and Gandhi at the height of the national movement and Indian renaissance. Fascinated by every aspect of India, he took a pro-Indian stance in his writings and advocated that Christianity would have to be stripped bare 'of its present foreign accretions and excrescences' if it was to become indigenous; 'otherwise it will remain an exotic plant, unacclimatised and sickly, needing the continual support and prop of the West'.13 Setting an agenda for creative Indian theology to develop, he suggested a combination of unity and transcendence, firmly held by Muslims and divine immanence and incarnation, which the Hindus sought to realize. Like Andrews, E. Stanley Jones found Christ was already in India, particularly in the hungry, thirsty, naked and sick. He gave an exposition of Jesus' 'Nazareth Manifesto' in the light of the Indian reality suggesting concrete programmes for the most depressed class of people. Jones encountered

B. Lucas, The Empire of Christ: Being a Study of the Missionary Enterprise in the Light ofModern

Religious Thought (London: Macmillan, 1908).

J. N. Farquhar, The Crown of Hinduism (London: Oxford University Press, 1913), p. 54.

C. F. Andrews, North India (London: A. R. Mowbray, 1908), p. 223.

freshly 'the Christ of the Indian road', which is the title of his first book. He held that Jesus is universal; that he can 'stand the shock of transplantation' and 'appeals to the universal heart'. He urged the Indian Christians 'to interpret him through their own genius and life' so that 'the interpretation will be first-hand and vital'.14

A. G. Hogg (1875—1954) was perhaps the most influential figure of his time. He was the mentor of great figures like S. Radhakrishnan. He criticized the radical discontinuity proposed by Hendrik Kraemer at the 1938 World Missionary Conference held at Tambaram, Madras, on the one hand and the fulfilment model presented by Farquhar on the other. He was upset by the typical Hindu attitude of neither acceptance nor rejection. 'The Christian message to the Hindu', Hogg wrote, 'must never be merely a Christianised version of Hinduism, but it does need to give to the authentic Christian faith a truly Indian form of expression.' But he submitted that this could be done only by the Indian Church, although foreign missionaries have a subsidiary role to play by helping 'that Church to see to it that what is presented to India is the full challenge of the ancient Christian Gospel in all its distinctiveness'.15 In some ways Hogg's position was replicated by one of the last group of missionaries, Lesslie Newbiggin (1909—98), who did not allow himself to be carried away by the radical re-thinking of Christianity that was developing in his working context, but emphasized the ancient Christian Gospel in all its distinctiveness.

The contribution of Western missionaries to the development of Indian theological reflections should not be underestimated. Robin Boyd (b. 1924) studied the attempts of major theologians and produced the monumental book An Introduction to Indian Christian Theology, published first in 1969, with several subsequent impressions.16 This and his later books17 reflect penetrating insights of a missionary theologian into exciting moments of the history of Indian Christian thought and spin a thread bringing together relevant themes. By making concurrent connections and comparisons with theological positions of the West, Boyd has made Indian reflections somewhat respectable and worth consulting. Besides Boyd, Eric Lott (b. 1934) and David Scott (b. 1938), the last in a

^ E. S. Jones, Christ of the Indian Road (Lucknow: Lucknow Publishing House, 1925), pp. 6—7. i6 E. Sharpe, The Theology of A. G. Hogg (Madras: Christian Literature Society, 1971), p. vi. R. H. S. Boyd, An Introduction to Indian Christian Theology (Delhi: ISPCK, 1969). Including R. H. S. Boyd, India and the Latin Captivity of the Church — The Cultural Context of the Gospel (London: Cambridge University Press, 1974); Manilal C. Parekh, 1885—1967, Dhanjibhai Fakirbhai, 1895—1967: A Selection (Madras: Christian Literature Society, 1974); and Khristadvaita — A Theology for India (Madras: Christian Literature Society, 1977).

line of missionary theologians in India, based in the United Theological College, have also made valuable contributions to Indian Christian theology through their study of Indian religious traditions and their interaction with a community of scholars, both Christian and non-Christian.

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