E. W. Conrad, 'How the Bible was Colonized' in P. L. Wickeri (ed.), Scripture, Community, and Mission (Hong Kong and London: CCA & CWM, 2002), pp. 94—107.

Kim Yong Bock, 'The Bible among the Minjung of Korea: Kairotic Listening and Reading of the Bible' in Wickeri, Scripture, Community, and Mission, pp. 72—93. England, Asian Christian Theologies, pp. 59—63.

sense. The churches read the Bible doctrinally, religiously and politically to protect their established interests.'28

This may be contrasted with various essays written by Archie Lee on cross-textual hermeneutics. He has argued that 'the biblical paradigm of the Exodus story, which has been widely accepted by liberation theologians for understanding the liberation of people from injustice and oppression, needs to be seriously reconsidered'.29 The implications of its ratification of the conquest of the Promised Land are much more difficult to accept today. He developed this in a second paper, in which he drew attention to the significance of the fact that the Book of Deuteronomy disrupts the flow of the Pentateuch from Numbers to Joshua. The canonical form of the text took shape in the Exile, when the possession of the land was 'not a present reality, but a promise yet to be realized'.30 He went on to discuss the way in which other traditions are reflected elsewhere in the text; in other words, there is not one single view, and choices have to be made. This was developed in a third essay, entitled 'Polyphonic Voices in the Bible'.31 Taking this polyphony as given, Lee used it to reinforce the argument he had advanced in other places that Christians should be ready to interpret their own scriptures in dialogue with the scriptures of other faiths. Another approach suggested by C. S. Song was that the politics of the resurrection should be the ultimate criterion of a 'liberation theology'.32 Bishop Ting was even more critical: 'The poor are not the Messiahs of the world, as if it were only necessary to liberate the poor and they would then liberate the world ... We must not idealize or absolutize the poor... We have had a taste of this during the ten years of the Cultural Revolution.'33 Nevertheless Ting appreciated liberation theology in its own context, and like Song affirmed the liberating nature of the Gospel of the Resurrection.34

It is not surprising that this issue should emerge so clearly in an Asian religious context. But it is related to the kind of issue referred to at the beginning of this Introduction in relation to the controversies of the Reformation. Before then the way in which the Old Testament should be interpreted in a Christian perspective was clearly laid down by the

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