Asian Realities That Impact On Asian Ecumenism

Several factors have affected the nature of ecumenism in Asia. Of the many local, regional and global factors, six features can be lifted up as features common to the whole region that have left their mark on Asian ecumenism. Wilfred Cantwell Smith, 'Christians in a Religiously Plural World', in John Hick and Brian Hebblethwaite (eds.), Christianity and Other Religions (Oxford Oneworld, 2001), pp. 44 58 at p. 45. It is often said that the diversity and plurality of the peoples of the Asian land...

Mission and evangelism evangelical and pentecostal theologies in Asia

The church in Asia has been growing at a phenomenal rate, doubling twice in the last century. This chapter will first examine the beginnings of evangelical and pentecostal theologies up to the middle of the twentieth century secondly their further developments over the last fifty years and thirdly the challenges posed for understanding Christianity and mission in Asia and globally. First we need to clarify our use of the terms evangelical and pentecostal. 'Evangelical' refers to those who are...

Concluding Remarks

The complex and multi-faceted reality of India is reflected in the variety of approaches and levels of understanding of theology. Faith-talk or God-talk is interwoven with historical, natural and social realities and passes through different stages. Robin Boyd's assessment of Indian theology after presenting the first stage is noteworthy. Writing in 1969, he says To use a familiar simile, the Church in many parts of India has been like a pot-plant transplanted into a garden. At first it grew in...

Conclusion

I have examined the five strands of Korean theology in relation to their socio-historical backgrounds and their theological discourse as each has made a distinctive contribution to the life of the churches and society in Korea in response to the problems of poverty, injustice and division. The choice of theologians discussed here is by no means comprehensive but selective, in order to demonstrate the emerging forms and themes of theology in the Korean context. 'Bible Christianity' and 'revival...

Subalterns identity politics and Christian theology in India

Puzzles on the ground, remembering the context Let me start by stating how I have come to forge a relationship between subalternity, identity politics and Christian theology in India. In 2001 I took my class of twenty-four students to spend three days with a dalit Christian community in a Tamilnadu village in south India.1 I made this a requirement for my course on 'dalit theology', which I taught from 1996 to 2004 at the United Theological College, Bangalore. This pilgrimage was designed to...

The Church Among Other Communities Of Faith

Christianity arrived in Asia not only as a theological option but also as a sociological option. In other words, the proclamation of the good news of 4o V. Chakkarai, Jesus the Avatar (Madras Christian Literature Society, 1932). See Sugirtharajah (ed.), Asian Faces of Jesus C. S. Song, Jesus the Crucified People (New York Crossroad, 1990), Jesus and the Reign of God (Minneapolis Fortress Press, 1993) and Jesus in the Power of the Spirit (Minneapolis Fortress Press, 1994) M. M. Thomas, The...

Preface and Acknowledgements

Perhaps the most striking single feature of Christianity today is the fact that the church now looks more like that great multitude whom none can number, drawn from all tribes and kindreds, people and tongues, than ever before in its history. Its diversity and history lead to a great variety of starting points for its theology and reflects varied bodies of experience. The study of Christian history and theology will increasingly need to operate from the position where most Christians are, and...

Info

The two most important thinkers from Japan in this period are Kanzo Uchimura (1861-1930) and Toyohiko Kagawa (1888-1960) the former is the pioneer of the 'non-church' concept and the latter is known for holistic mission. Kanzo Uchimura, from the samurai class, grew up with a combination of Confucian morality and Japanese folk religion. In 1877 he enrolled in the Sapparo Agriculture School, where he converted to Christianity, although, during the Meiji Restoration, Christianity was often deemed...

From abandonment to blessing the theological presence of Christianity in Indonesia

Christianity in Indonesia has gone through a history parallel only to the history of the nation-state itself. As a nation-state made of diverse ethnic groups of old societies and still struggling with its pluralistic identity, Christianity in Indonesia struggles likewise. However, during the short history of the nation state, Christianity has made practical contributions to the creation of a just and egalitarian nation-state. It has been, therefore, the struggle and the call of Christianity to...

Studying Christianity and doing theology extra ecclesiam in China

CAN THEOLOGY BE DONE OUTSIDE THE CHURCH EXTRA ECCLESIAM Cyprian c. 200-58 , Bishop of Carthage, insisted that 'outside the church there is no salvation' extra ecclesiam nulla salus . In the context of modern China, the question is now Is there Christian theology outside the Chinese church extra ecclesiam This has become an important issue in modern China because non-Christian scholars in the Chinese academia have been seriously involved in studying Christianity and doing theology for about...

Dialogical Response To The Indian Renaissance And The Acknowledged Christ

Now we turn to recognize a new context. With the opportunity to be exposed to British education and western thinking a group of Hindu thinkers in modern India, including Ram Mohan Roy 1772-1833 and Keshab Chunder Sen 1838-84 , were motivated to reform their tradition. They challenged exclusive claims by Christians and their missionaries and reclaimed the positive aspects of their ancient tradition. At the same time, they were different from those who were hostile to Christian mission and...

Academic And Ecclesiastical Theology

The underlying approach adopted here is essentially historical, rather than that of the systematic theologian.1 A systematic theologian usually feels Because of my own limitations it is also confined to works translated into English, which is a significant disadvantage. There is an invaluable book edited by J. C. England and others, Asian Christian Theologies A Research Guide to Authors, Movements, Sources vol. 1 Asia Region, South Asia, Austral Asia New York, 2002 . Much use has been made of...

C.w. Iglehart Protestant Christianity In Japan

Breen, J. and Williams, M. eds. , Japan and Christianity Impacts and Responses, Basingstoke Macmillan, 1996. Cary, O., A History of Christianity in Japan Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Protestant Missions, Rutland Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1976. Dohi, A., 'Christianity in Japan' in T. K. Thomas ed. , Christianity in Asia North-East Asia, Singapore Christian Conference of Asia, 1979, pp. 35 66. Drummond, R. H., A History of Christianity in Japan, Grand Rapids Eerdmans, 1971. Furuya, Y. ed....

Christian theology under feudalism nationalism and democracy in Japan

Christian theology in Japan takes a number of forms, but still it is meaningful to talk of Japanese Christian theology. On the one hand, Japanese Christian theology could be understood negatively as a nationalistic and introverted theology in Japan on the other hand, it could be understood positively as an indigenous and original theology in Japan. Moreover, Christian theology in Japan is not merely the theology of Japanese theologians it is also the theology of Japanese Christians and at the...

Introduction

The multi-scriptural phenomenon of Asian cultures and religions has presented a problem and a challenge to the reading of the Bible, by Asian Christians, from the time of the colonial era. In order to justify the existence of and uphold the credibility of the missionary movement, which was part of the whole colonial project of the empire, the basic missionary strategy was set to undermine and even condemn the living traditions of Asian religions and their respective scriptures. The impact of...

What Is The Meaning Of Bullock-cart Christology

Into the true nature of human life and its ultimate goal. He evaluated the major secular ideologies of India, focusing on anthropology, and tried to reconceive the secular meaning of Christ. In the end, he affirms the reality of human beings as created in the image of God, but fallen creatures, of 'the Crucified and Risen Jesus Christ as the true man and the source of renewal of human nature and through it of all things'.38 In his later studies also, Christ was his central concern and he was...

Holy Spirit According To Chakkarai

Chakkarai, Jesus the Avatar Madras Christian Literature Society, 1930 , p. 114. 25 V. Chakkarai, Jesus the Avatar Madras Christian Literature Society, 1930 , p. 124. 26 V. Chakkarai, The Cross and Indian Thought Madras Christian Literature Society, 1932 . H. Kraemer, The Christian Message in a Non-Christian World London International Missionary Council, 1938 . the Kingdom of God.27 According to Chenchiah, organized church and organized evangelism are unbiblical and ineffective for the...

Points Of Contact And The Christian Use Of Hindu Concepts

Rudra 1861-1925 in the North, and K. T. Paul 1876-1931 and V. S. Azariah 1874-1945 in the South, in general terms, sharing some of the ideas of the missionary theologians mentioned above, presented Christ as a window to God and vision for humanity, as well as a source of inspiration to raise the moral consciousness of Indians.18 But they were divided on the question of the value and theological validity of the institutionalized church in India. The last two made...

Different Styles And Models Of Indian Christian Theologies

We have space here only to illustrate the major approaches, about which several preliminary points should be made. First, many of the influential theologians of Protestant circles in India were non-professionals with claims to first-hand religious experience, and they came up with random reflections. This could be best illustrated with the approach of Sadhu Sundar Singh 1889-1929 . As a convert from the Sikh tradition through a mystical encounter with Christ, Sundar Singh joined a divinity...

Western Theology And Indigenous Theology Under Democracy

The third rise of Christianity in Japan comes after the war. The full freedom of religion in the new Japanese Constitution of 1947 boosts Christianity again in Japan, as part of the process of democratization instigated by the American occupation policies. Independently of the reintroduction of Christianity, an ingenious Japanese theology emerged from within the painful situation of defeat that is, Theology of the Pain of God 1946 by Kazo Kitamori 1916 98 . As Professor of Systematic Theology...

A.j.appasamy Spirit Of Anteryamin

Thomas, The Secular Ideologies of India and the Secular Meaning of Christ Madras Christian Literature Society-CISRS, 1976 , pp. 241-84. A. J. Appasamy, Christianity as Bhakti Marga A Study of the Johannine Doctrine ofLove Madras Christian Literature Society, 1930 What is Moksa A Study in the Johannine Doctrine of Life Madras Christian Literature Society, 1931 . of Ramanuja. Accordingly, the oneness between Jesus and his Father was not ontological but moral, 'a union in love and work and...

Institutions And Scholars Involved In Christian Studies In China

Chen Jian Ming of Sichuan University has put those Chinese institutions which are engaged in Christian studies under four categories institutes for Religious Studies in the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences as well as academies in the provinces and cities research units in charge of religious studies under the various governmental departments seminaries of the Chinese Christian Church CCC and various religious studies institutes under the various departments in the universities and other...

New Awakening To Distinctive Identities And Fresh Theological Insights

'Is Christianity the teaching of Christ or the teaching of a certain body of men '56 The learned pandita Ramabai asked this question. We have already noted her association with Goreh and Sen. As a convert and social activist, particularly committed to the emancipation of hapless widows, she was reacting to sophisticated translations of the Bible with misleading Hindu terms, grand ceremonies and dogmas produced by men using their 53 See T. Thangaraj, The Crucified Guru An Experiment in...

Bibiliography For Feminist Theology India

C., Liberative Solidarity Contemporary Perspectives on Mission, Tiruvalla Christava Sahitya Samithi, 1996. Aleaz, K. P., Christian Thought Through Advaita Vedanta, Delhi ISPCK, 1996. Amirtham, S., 'Some New Emphases in Theological Education in Arasaradi' in R. S. Sugirtharajah and C. Hargreaves eds. , Readings in Indian Christian Theology, vol. I, London SPCK, 1993, pp. 14 23. Andrews, C. F., North India, London A. R. Mowbray, 1908. Appasamy, A. J., Christianity as BhaktiMarga,...

Vernacular Attempts At Theologizing

So far we have noted reflections done in English with reference to Sanskrit traditions. It is important to recognize contributions in the vernacular, which display features of originality and spontaneity. For example, Narayan Vaman Tilak 1862-1919 , the poet of Maharashtra, was a convert, who became a Christian monk, and who sought to gather round himself a group called 'God's Darb r, a brotherhood of the 'baptised and unbaptised disciples of Christ'. Tilak wanted to present Christ to India in...

Dalit Theologians And Holy Spirit

Gnanadason, 'Feminist Theology An Indian Perspective' in R. S. Sugirtharajah and 5 C. Hargreaves eds. , Readings in Indian Christian Theology, vol. 1 London SPCK, 1993 pp. 59 71. 60 M. E. Prabhakar ed. , Towards a Dalit Theology Delhi ISPCK-CISRS-CDLM, 1989 . A. P. Nirmal, 'Towards a Christian Dalit Theology' in A. P. Nirmal and V. Devasahayam eds. , A Reader in Dalit Theology Madras Gurukul, 1985 , pp. 53 70 at 58. liberty of the children of God'. He denounces Hindu gods like Rama who,...

The Missionary Contribution To Indian Christian Theologizing

Western missionaries came to India with a definite mandate to preach the gospel of light to heathens. But some of them had startling experiences when they encountered natives who had a high sense of morality and undertook fascinating acts of religious devotion. This happened to the first Protestant missionary, Barthalomaeus Ziegenbalg 1682-1719 , who was sponsored by a Danish king, sent by the pietistic Halle Mission, and landed on the east coast of southern India in 1706. Startled by the...