List of Illustrations viii

Preface ix

1 The City: The New Jerusalem 1

Images and the Christian Faith 2

The City of Jerusalem in the Old Testament 7

The City of Jerusalem in the New Testament 10

Augustine of Hippo on the Two Cities 13

The Heavenly City and Medieval Spirituality 17

Pearl and the New Jerusalem 25

John Bunyan's Heavenly City 29

The Shape of the Heavenly Body 33

2 The Garden: Heaven as Paradise 39

The Quest for the Garden of Eden 41

Paradise in the Bible 43

Early Christian Views of Paradise 47

The Millennium as Paradise 52

Medieval Visions of Paradise 54

Dante's Divine Comedy 58

Paradise and the Enclosed Garden 65

Heaven as the Restoration of Eden 70

3 Opening the Gates of Heaven: Atonement and Paradise 75

Christ the Victor 79

Christ the Hero 83

Christ the Harrower of Hell 88

Christ the Redeemer: Atonement as Satisfaction 94

Christ the Lover: Atonement and the Enkindling of Love 96

The Institutionalization of Atonement:

The Church as the Gateway to Heaven 101

The Privatization of Atonement: Personal Faith as the Gateway to Heaven 106

4 The Signposting of Heaven: Signals of Transcendence 111

Nature as an Anticipation of Heaven 113

The Ascent of Love and the Intimation of Heaven 117

Experience and the Sense of Heaven:

Herbert and Traherne 120

Nature as a Signpost of Heaven: Romanticism and Transcendentalism 124

Longing for Heaven: C. S. Lewis 130

5 The Consolation of Heaven 137

Reunion with Family in Heaven in Early

Roman Christianity 139

Heaven as an Encounter with God 141

Heaven as a Dream: Feuerbach, Marx, and Freud 146

Heaven as an Encounter with Loved Ones 150

African American Spirituals 155

6 Journey's End: Heaven as the Goal of the Christian Life 161

The Concept of Spirituality 162

The Hope of Heaven: Theological Foundations 164

The Appeal to Worship: Heaven on Earth 166

Feasting in the Kingdom 168

Journeying to the Promised Land 171

Returning to the Homeland from Exile 175

Seeing God Face to Face 181

Works Consulted 185

Index 192

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