the law or as matters legally indifferent and therefore permissible. The arrangement of the work of daily life in correspondence with these religious points of view is the most important outcome of the Muhammedan doctrine of duties. The religious utterances which also cover the whole business of life were first made duties by this doctrine : in practice their fulfilment is impossible, but the theory of their obligatory nature is a fundamental element in Muhammedanism.
Where the doctrine of duties deals with legal rights, its application was in practice confined to marriage and the affairs of family life : the theoretical demands of its penal clauses, for instance, raise impossible difficulties. At the same time, it has been of great importance to the whole spiritual life of Islam down to the present day, because it reflects Muhammedan ideals of life and of man's place in the world. Even today it remains the daily bread of the soul that desires instruction, to quote the words
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