Christian cancelli or choir screens were adopted and the mosque was thus developed. Before the age of mosques, a lance had been planted in the ground and prayer offered behind it: so in the mosque a prayer niche was made, a survival of the preexisting custom. There are many obscure points in the development of the worship, but one fact may be asserted with confidence : the developments of ritual were derived from pre-existing practices, which were for the most part Christian.
But the religious energy of Islam was not exclusively devoted to the development and practice of the doctrine of duties ; at the same time this ethical department, in spite of its dependency upon Christian and Jewish ideas, remains its most original achievement: we have pursued the subject at some length, because its importance is often overlooked in the course of attempts to estimate the connection between Chris-
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