Reasons for this research

Kenneth Leech offers this critical assessment of Christian fundamentalism and also some grounds for its evaluation.

Biblical fundamentalism has normally been accompanied by manifestations of bigotry, intolerance and violence... Fundamentalism of this kind is a serious danger to Christian spirituality as well as to the health of any community in which it is present. It is a pathological growth upon the Christian movement and calls for very serious and thoughtful responses.166

The Palestinian Christian community has, especially since 1948, suffered isolation, discrimination and persecution in a way that some describe as a form of apartheid or 'ethnic cleansing'. They are presently caught between three forms of religious fundamentalism, a Moslem fundamentalism which regards them as traitors to the Arab cause; a Jewish fundamentalism which perceives them as a 'fifth column' and impediment to the realisation of a 'Greater Israel'; and a Christian fundamentalism which is infatuated with Zionism and is, in the words of Don Wagner, 'Anxious for Armageddon,'167 unable to comprehend why Christian Palestinians do not support the State of Israel against the perceived threat of Islam.

They have experienced as a people, how,

"Fundamentalism represents a narrowing of vision, a closing of doors, a diminishing of human beings, and a backward force in human history..."168

The plight of the Palestinian church is made worse by the fact that they are ignored by the majority of Christian pilgrims and tourists, of all traditions, who visit the Holy Land primarily to see the sites associated with the Bible. The author's previous research has shown that their itineraries tend to follow a predictable pattern determined more by the strategies of the Israeli Government Ministry of Tourism than the needs of the indigenous Christian communities for contact and fellowship.169

As a consequence, a significant number of Palestinians continue to leave their homeland out of desperation, fear and intimidation. The very real danger is the creation of what Archbishop George Carey once described as 'an empty Christian Disney World.' At this critical time there is a newly emerging and distinctive Palestinian theology, distinct from other forms of Liberation Theology, which is offering an alternative, indeed a contrary reading of the Scriptures to that of Christian Zionism. It is reflected in the writings of Naim Ateek, Audeh Rantisi, Riah Abu El-Assal, Elias Chacour and others.170

While evangelicalism and Christian fundamentalism, in particular, have attracted a considerable amount of attention in academic circles,171 their influence upon the rise of Christian Zionism appears to have escaped serious consideration apart from a few notable exceptions.172 Indeed Marsden concedes that,

Even most of those neo-evangelicals who abandoned the details of dispensationalism still retained a firm belief in Israel's God-ordained role. This belief is immensely popular in America, though rarely mentioned in proportion to its influence.173

In the light of an extensive survey of published literature there appears to have been little research so far into the historical origins, theological basis and political ramifications of contemporary Christian Zionism nor an assessment of its impact on the indigenous Christian community of Israel/Palestine. Regina Sharif, for example, explores the influence of the Reformation, Puritanism and Millennialism on the rise of Zionism, although she concentrates more on political Zionism and the developments prior to 1945.174

The traditional terms 'Gentile' or 'Christian' Zionism are misleading since they now suggest a Christian enthusiasm for Zionism motivated essentially by Biblical or theological reasoning. But it is the political motivations of non-Jewish protagonists of Zionism which have above all today come to make up an integral part of the non-Jewish Zionist matrix... It is precisely this unique phenomenon on non-Jewish Zionism that we propose to analyse here.175

It is the conviction of this author that the influence of Christians upon Zionism has been consistently underestimated and is much more pervasive and influential than has previously been thought. It is for this reason that this research was initiated. The aims are threefold:

1. To assess the main historical, theological and political factors in the rise of contemporary Christian Zionism.

2. To examine and classify discrete types of contemporary Christian Zionism distinguished on the basis of their historical roots, theological perspective, ecclesiastical loyalties and political ramifications, in particular, with regard to the indigenous church of Israel/Palestine.

3. Specifically to discover how Christian Zionist organisations justify biblically and theologically their support for the State of Israel, as demonstrated in their views as to Israel's legitimate international borders; justification of Israel's continued illegal occupation of the West Bank; claim to Jerusalem as their eternal undivided city (the status and extent of Jerusalem); aspirations regarding the Temple Mount (hopes for the rebuilding of the Third Temple); and their attitude toward the continued denial of Palestinian aspirations to autonomy, self determination and statehood.

The theological presuppositions upon which this research is based are reflected in the following sentiment,

I hold to the representative view of Israel's future, neither anti-semitic nor zionist. First, according to this position, Israel maintains a special place in the plan of God. It is greatly loved by God. Because of its unique role in the conversion of the Gentiles, it is to be evangelised, not exterminated. It is to be called back to the God of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Joseph, not excluded from a place in the world. It is to be cherished by the Church, the New Israel, not excoriated as a "Christ-killer": remember, the whole world crucified Christ, for above His head were written in all the major languages of Jew and Gentile: "King of the Jews." But second, the representative or covenantal view is not nationalistic. It does not believe there is magic in being a political unit, a nation. Just because Israel has become nationalized has little or nothing to do with its becoming "covenantalized"; in fact, being politicized has always stood in its way of accepting Christ as Savior and more importantly, Lord.176

The second chapter will appraise the main historical influences upon the rise of contemporary Christian Zionism.

Revised 31 August 1998

1 Colin Chapman, Whose Promised Land, Israel or Palestine? rev. edn. (Oxford, Lion, 1992), p.277.

2 Sharif, Non-Jewish, back cover.

4 Cited in Sharif, Non-Jewish., p. 7; see also Uri Davis, The State of Palestine (Reading, Ithaca, 1991), p. 28.

6 Uri Davis, Israel, An Apartheid State (London, Zed, 1987)

7 Rob Richards, Has God Finished with Israel? (Crowborough, Monarch, 1994), p.177.

8 Cited in 'The Church and Israel' by Michael Horton, Modern Reformation (May/June 1994), p. 1.

9 Hal Lindsey, The Road to Holocaust (New York, Bantam, 1989). Lindsey accuses those who oppose dispensationalism of anti-Semitism, '...the same error that founded the legacy of contempt for the Jews and ultimately led to the Holocaust of Nazi Germany.' (back page).

10 Derek Prince, The Last Word of the Middle East (Fort Lauderdale, Derek Prince Ministries International, 1982); The Destiny of Israel and the Church (Milton Keynes, Word, 1992).

11 David Pawson, Jerusalem-The Next 1,000 Years (audio tape DP.1115, Ashford, Anchor Recordings).

12 Lance Lambert, The Battle for Israel (Eastbourne, Kingsway, 1975); The Uniqueness of Israel (Eastbourne, Kingsway, 1980).

13 Walter Riggans, Israel and Zionism (London, Handsell, 1988); The Covenant with the Jews: What's So Unique About the Jewish People? (Tunbridge Wells, Monarch, 1992).

14 Merrill Simon, Jerry Falwell and the Jews (Middle Village, New York, Jonathan David, 1984).

15 Pat Robertson, The New Millennium, 10 Trends That Will Impact You and Your Family By The Year 2000 (Dallas, Word, 1990); The Secret Kingdom: Your Path to Peace, Love and Financial Security, rev. edn. (Dallas, Word, 1992).

16 Hal Lindsey, The Late Great Planet Earth (London, Lakeland, 1970); The 1980's Countdown to Armageddon (New York, Bantam, 1981); Israel and the Last Days (Eugene, Oregon, Harvest House Publishers, 1983); The Road to Holocaust (New York, Bantam 1989); Planet Earth 2000 A.D. Will Mankind Survive? (Palos Verdes, California, Western Front. 1994); The Final Battle (Palos Verdes, California, Western Front. 1995).

17 Mike Evans, Israel, America's Key to Survival (Plainfield, New Jersey, Haven, n.d.); The Return (Nashville, Thomas Nelson, 1986).

18 Charles Dyer, The Rise of Babylon, Signs of the End Times (Wheaton, Illinois, Tyndale House, 1991); World News and Biblical Prophecy (Wheaton, Illinois, Tyndale House, 1993)

19 John Walvoord, Israel in Prophecy (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1962); The Nations in Prophecy. (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1967

20 Dave Hunt, The Cup of Trembling: Jerusalem and Bible Prophecy (Eugene, Origen, Harvest House, 1995)

21 Basilea Schlink, Israel, My Chosen People, rev. edn. (Basingstoke, Marshall Pickering, 1987); Israel at the Heart of World Events (Darmstadt-Eberstadt, Evangelical Sisterhood of Mary, 1991).

22 Donald Wagner, Anxious for Armageddon (Scottdale, Pennsylvania, Herald Press, 1995)

23 Notably, Hal Lindsey, The 1980's Countdown to Armageddon (New York, Bantam, 1981); The Road to Holocaust (New York, Bantam 1989); The Final Battle (Palos Verdes, California, Western Front. 1995); Mike Evans, Israel, America's Key to Survival (Plainfield, New Jersey, Haven, n.d.); John F. Walvoord, Armageddon, Oil and the Middle East Crisis (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1990); Moishe Rosen, Beyond the Gulf War, Overture to Armageddon (San Bernardino, Here's Life Publishers, 1991); Dave Hunt, Peace, Prosperity and the Coming Holocaust (Eugene, Oregon, Harvest House, 1983).

24 Louis Bahjat Hamada, Understanding the Arab World (Nashville, Nelson, 1990), p. 189.

25 George H. Stevens, Go, Tell My Brethren: A Short Popular History of Church Missions to Jews (London, Olive Press, 1959), 13

26 Kelvin Crombie, For the Love of Zion: Christian witness and the restoration of Israel (London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1991), p. 3.

27 Dean Hugh M'Neile was a colleague of Louise Way. See his The Collected Works: Volume 2. The Prophecies Relative to the Jewish Nation (London: Christian Book Society 1878), first published 1830.

30 Church's Ministry Among Jewish People (CMJ), Shalom, 3 (1995), p. 1.

33 Israel Trust of the Anglican Church, Immanuel House, Tel Aviv 1866-1990 (Tel Aviv, ITAC, 1990)

34 The Church's Ministry Among Jewish People. General Director's Annual Report 1996 (CMJ, St Albans, 1996).

35 General Director's Annual Report 1996 (CMJ, St Albans, 1996)

36 Walter Riggans, Israel and Zionism (London, Handsell, 1988), p. 19.

37 The Church's Ministry Among Jewish People, Always be Prepared to Give an Answer Resource Pack (CMJ, St Albans, 1996)

38 Christian Friends of Israel, Standing with Israel, information leaflet, n.d.

39 Clarence H. Wagner, 'Who are we?' Bridges for Peace, Jerusalem, September 1996.

40 Beryl Norman, 'The Churches in the Middle East' Church Times, 18 June 1993.

41 Beryl Norman in correspondence, following her letter to the Church Times, 1993.

42 Harold R. Cook, 'William Eugene Blackstone' The New International Dictionary of the Christian Church, ed. J.D. Douglas (Exeter, Paternoster, 1974), p. 134.

43 William E. Blackstone, Jesus is Coming (Chicago, Fleming Revell, 1916)

44 American Messianic Fellowship International, 'What is AMF' Internet: http://www.mjaa.org. obtained, 29 October 1996.

45 American Messianic Fellowship International, 'Articles of Belief Internet: http://www.mjaa.org. obtained, 29 October 1996.

46 The Messianic Jewish Alliance of America (MJAA), 'What is the MJAA?' Internet: http://www.mjaa.org. obtained, 29 October 1996.

47 MJAA, 'What does MJAA believe?' Internet: http://www.mjaa.org. obtained, 29 October 1996.

48 MJAA, 'What are the ministries of MJAA?' Internet: http://www.mjaa.org. obtained, 29 October 1996.

49 MJAA Position Paper, 'Messianic Jews Say: "The Land Belongs to Israel!"' published in HaAretz, 20 March 1992. MJAA. Internet: http://www.mjaa.org. obtained, 29 October 1996.

51 Moishe Rosen, Overture to Armageddon? Beyond the Gulf War (San Bernardino, California, Here's Life Publishers, 1991)

52 Jews for Jesus (JFJ), Jews for Jesus Briefing Bulletin, '"Billy Graham was Misunderstood" Says Jews for Jesus Leader', Internet: http://www.jews-for-jesus.org, obtained 29 October 1996.

53 JFJ, Doctrinal Statement, Internet: http://www.jews-for-jesus.org, obtained 29 October 1996.

54 JFJ, Doctrinal.,

55 David L. Larsen, Jews, Gentiles, and the Church: A New Perspective on History and Prophecy (Grand Rapids, Michigan,

Discovery House Publishers, 1995)

56 JFJ, Publications Page. obtained, 29 October 1996.

58 International Christian Zionist Congress Proclamation, International Christian Embassy, Jerusalem. 25-29 February 1996.

59 International Christian Zionist Congress Proclamation, International Christian Embassy, Jerusalem. 25-29 February 1996.

60 Interview with Ray Lockhart, vicar of Christ Church, Jerusalem, 1994.

62 Lance Lambert, 'The Eternal Significance of Jerusalem.' Out of Zion: 2nd Quarter, 1996. Christian Friends of Israel.

63 Mark Thompson, 'Saving the Heart of Evangelicalism.' The Anglican Evangelical Crisis ed. by Melvin Tinker (Fearn, Ross-shire, Christian Focus, 1995), p. 29.

64 D.W. Bebbington, Evangelicalism in Modern Britain, A History from the 1730's to the 1980's, (London, Unwin Hyman, 1989), pp. 1-19; Kenneth S. Kantzer & Carl, F.H. Henry eds, Evangelical Affirmations (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1990).

65 Mark Thompson, 'Saving'., p.28. For example: Clive Calver, He Brings us Together: Joining Hands Where Truth and Justice Meet (London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1987); Alistair E. McGrath, Evangelicalism and the Future of Christianity (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1994); Derek J. Tidball, Who are the Evangelicals? Tracing the Roots of Today's Movements (London, Marshall Pickering, 1994)

66 Richard Quebedeaux, The Worldly Christians (New York, Harper & Row, 1978)

68 Bruce Shelley, 'Fundamentalism', The New International Dictionary of the Christian Church, ed. J.D. Douglas (Exeter, Paternoster Press, 1974), p. 397.

69 Two important international and inter-cultural studies are, Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby, Fundamentalists Observed (Chicago, University of Chicago, 1991), and Bruce B. Lawrence, Defenders of God, The Fundamentalist Revolt Against the Modern Age (San Francisco, Harper & Row, 1989). The most important accounts of American Protestant fundamentalism have been written by George M. Marsden, Fundamentalism and American Culture, The Shaping of Twentieth Century Evangelicalism 1870-1925 (New York, Oxford University Press, 1980); and Understanding Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1991); Ernest Robert Sandeen, The Roots of Fundamentalism, British and American Millenarianism 1800-1930 (Chicago, Chicago University Press, 1970); Nancy Ammerman, Bible Believers, Fundamentalists in the Modern World (New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press, 1987);. For a British perspective, see also James Barr, Fundamentalism (London, SCM, 1981); Escaping from Fundamentalism (London, SCM, 1984); Kathleen C. Boone, The Bible Tells Them So, The Discourse of Protestant Fundamentalism (London, SCM, 1989); and Martyn Percy, Words, Wonders and Power: Understanding Contemporary Christian Fundamentalism and Revivalism (London, SPCK, 1996).

70 David A. Rausch, Communities in Conflict, Evangelicals and Jews ((Valley Forge, Trinity Press International, 1991); Fundamentalist Evangelicals and Anti-Semitism (Valley Forge, Trinity Press International, 1993).

71 Michael Lienesch, Redeeming America: Piety & Politics in the New Christian Right (Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press, 1993); Garry Wills, Under God: Religion and American Politics (New York, Simon and Schuster, 1990); Steve Bruce, 'The Moral Majority, The Politics of Fundamentalism in Secular Society.' In Studies in Religious Fundamentalism ed. Lionel Caplan (London, Macmillan. 1987), pp. 177-194; The Rise and Fall of the New Christian Right, Conservative Protestant Politics in America 1978-1988 (Oxford, Clarendon, 1988);

72 Steve Bruce, Pray TV, Televangelism in America (London, Routledge, 1990);

73 Donald Bridge, Travelling Through the Holy Land (London, Christian Focus, 1998), pp. 55-56, 70.

74 Gerald Butt, 'The glory and the dream' Church Times, 1 November 1996, p. 8.

75 cited in the Independent on Sunday, 13 January 1991.

76 Martin E. Marty & R. Scott Appleby, Fundamentalism Observed (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1991), p. 1.

77 Thomas Ice & Randall Price, Ready to Rebuild, The Imminent Plan to Rebuild the Last Days Temple (Eugene, Oregon, Harvest House, 1992); Winkie Pratney & Barry Chant, The Return (Chichester, Sovereign World, 1988), p. 180-191.; Hal Lindsey, The Late Great Planet Earth (Basingstoke, Marshall, Morgan & Scott, 1971), p. 55f.

79 Notably, Hal Lindsey, The Late Great Planet Earth (London, Lakeland, 1970); The 1980's Countdown to Armageddon (New York, Bantam, 1981); Israel and the Last Days (Eugene, Oregon, Harvest House Publishers, 1983); The Road to Holocaust (New York, Bantam 1989); Planet Earth 2000 A.D. Will Mankind Survive? (Palos Verdes, California, Western Front. 1994); The Final Battle. (Palos Verdes, California, Western Front. 1995); Charles C. Ryrie, The Final Countdown (Wheaton, Illinois, 1982); Mike Evans, Israel, America's Key to Survival (Plainfield, New Jersey, Haven, n.d.); Walter Riggans, Israel & Zionism (London, Handsell, 1988); Lance Lambert, The Uniqueness of Israel rev. ed. (Eastbourne, Kingsway, 1995); John F. Walvoord, Armageddon, Oil and the Middle East Crisis (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1990); Moishe Rosen, Beyond the Gulf War, Overture to Armageddon (San Bernardino, Here's Life Publishers, 1991); Kelvin Crombie, For the Love of Zion, Christian witness and the restoration of Israel (London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1991); David Dolan, Israel, The Struggle to Survive (London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1992); Thomas Ice and Randall Price, Ready to Rebuild, The Imminent Plan to Rebuild the Last Days Temple (Eugene, Oregon, Harvest House Publishers, 1992); Rob Richards, Has God finished with Israel? (Crowborough, Monarch, 1994); Dave Hunt, Peace, Prosperity and the Coming Holocaust (Eugene, Oregon, Harvest House, 1983).

80 Robert G. Clouse, (ed) The Meaning of the Millennium (Downers Grove, Illinois, IVP, 1977); Stanley J. Grenz, The Millennial Maze: Sorting Out Evangelical Options (Downers Grove, Illinois, IVP, 1992)

81 J.N. Darby, 'The Rapture of the Saints and the Character of the Jewish Remnant,' Collected Writings Prophetic. I, Vol. II, pp. 153-155; John F. Walvoord, The Rapture Question rev. edn. (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1979); Hal Lindsey, The Rapture (New York, Bantam Books, 1983)

82 J.N. Darby, 'The Rapture of the Saints and the Character of the Jewish Remnant,' Collected Writings Prophetic. I, Vol.II, pp. 153-155.

83 Unconvincingly denied by John Walvood in The Blessed Hope and the Tribulation (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1975), p. 48, but corroborated by Iain Murray, The Puritan Hope (Edinburgh, Banner of Truth, 1971), p. 200; and F. Roy Coad, A History of the Brethren Movement (Exeter, Patrernoster, 1968), pp. 128ff.

84 Joseph M. Canfield, The Incredible Scofield and his Book (Vallecito, California, Ross House Books, 1988), pp. 126ff.

85 Lewis S. Chafer, Dispensationalism (Dallas, Seminary Press, 1936)

86 Charles Ryrie, Dispensationalism Today (Chicago, Moody Press, 1965); Dispensationalism (Chicago, Moody Press, 1995)

87 Ryrie, Dispensationalism., (1995), p. 148.

89 Tim LaHaye, No Fear of the Storm, Why Christians Will Escape All the Tribulation (Sisters, Oregon, Multnomah, 1992), back cover. See also John Walvoord, The Blessed Hope and the Tribulation (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1975); The Blessed Hope and the Kingdom (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1976); The Rapture Question (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1979); John L. Bray, The Origins of the Pre-Tribulation Rapture Teaching (Lakeland, Florida, J.L. Bray Ministries, 1982)

90 Hal Lindsey, The Late Great Planet Earth (London, Lakeland, 1970) p. 136.

91 Joseph M. Canfield, The Incredible Scofield and his Book (Vallecito, California, Ross House Books, 1988), p. 127. See further, Richard R. Reiter, The Decline of the Niagara Bible Conference and Breakup of the United Premillennial Movement Unpublished paper, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, 1976, p. 2. See also, Reiter, The Rapture Controversy in Late Nineteenth Century American Fundamentalism unpublished paper, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, 1980.

92 J. O. Buswell, A Systematic Theology of the Christian Religion (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1972), Vol. 2, pp. 393-450; N.B. Harrison, The End (Minneapolis, Harrison, 1941). See also M. J. Erickson, Contemporary Opinions in Eschatology (Grand Rapids, Baker, 1977, pp. 164-168.

93 J. Barton Payne, The Imminent Appearing of Jesus Christ (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1962); George Eldon Ladd, The Blessed Hope, A Biblical Study of the Second Advent and the Rapture (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1956); R. H. Gundry, The Church and the Tribulation (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1973)

95 Tim LaHaye, No Fear of the Storm, Why Christians Will Escape All the Tribulation (Sisters, Oregon, Multnomah, 1992), pp. 15, 95ff.

96 Marvin Rosenthal, The Pre-Wrath Rapture of the Church (Nashville, Thomas Nelson, 1990); and Marvin Rosenthal & Kevin Howard, Examining the Pre-Wrath Rapture of the Church (Nashville, Thomas Nelson, 1994)

100 Clarence Bass, Backgrounds to Dispensationalism (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1960); Daniel P. Fuller, Gospel and Law: Contrast or Continuum. The Hermeneutics of Dispensationalism and Covenant Theology (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Eerdmans, 1980). Ryrie attempts, unconvincingly, to find latent dispensationalism in the Early Church Fathers and in the writings of others such as Isaac Watts. See Charles Ryrie, Dispensationalism Today (Chicago, Moody, 1965), p. 73. This claim is refuted by John Gerstner, Wrongly Dividing the Word of Truth (Brentwood, Wolgemuth & Hyatt, 1991) pp. 7-20.

101 Iain H. Murray, The Puritan Hope: Revival and the Interpretation of Prophecy (Edinburgh, Banner of Truth, 1971), p.191; George E. Ladd, Crucial Questions About the Kingdom of God (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1952), p. 49.

102 John Nelson Darby, 'The Apostasy of Successive Dispensations.' Collected Writings., Eccl. 1, Vol. 1, p. 197.

103 Ryrie attempts to trace the lineage of dispensationalism back to Irenaeus, Clement and Augustine. See Charles Ryrie, Dispensationalism (Chicago, Moody Press, 1995), p. 63.

105 C. I. Scofield, Rightly Dividing the Word of Truth (Philadelphia, Philadelphia School of the Bible, 1928)

106 Ryrie, Dispensationalism., p. 38.

107 Ryrie, Dispensationalism., p. 54.

108 Charles Dyer, The Rise of Babylon, Signs of the End Times (Wheaton, Illinois, Tyndale House, 1991), p. 189.

109 Gary DeMar, Last Days Madness, Obsession of the Modern Church (Atlanta, American Vision, 1997)

110 Gerstner, Wrongly., p. 99.

111 Charles Ryrie, Dispensationalism Today (Chicago, Moody Press, 1965), p. 48.

112 Ryrie, Dispensationalism., p. 137.

113 J. N. Darby, The Hopes of the Church of God (London: G. Morrish, n.d.), p. 106.

114 C. I. Scofield, Scofield Bible Correspondence Course, 19th edn. (Chicago, Moody Bible Institute), p. 23.

115 Ryrie, Dispensationalism., pp. 39-40.

116 Lewis Sperry Chafer, Dispensationalism (Dallas, Seminary Press, 1936), p. 107.

117 Chafer, Systematic Theology (Dallas, Dallas Seminary Press, 1975), Vol. 4. pp. 315-323, cited in Gerstner, Wrongly., p. 184.

119 Ryrie, Dispensationalism., pp. 44-45.

120 Allan A. MacRae, "Hath God Cast Away His People? In Prophetic Truth Unfolding Today, ed. Charles L. Feinberg (Westwood, N.J., Revell, 1968), p. 95. Cited in Gerstner, Wrongly., p. 183.

121 Hal Lindsey, The Road to Holocaust (New York, Bantam, 1989) back page.

122 Chafer, Dispensationalism., p. 107.

123 Charles C. Ryrie, Dispensationalism rev. edn. (Chicago, Moody Press, 1995), p. 39.

124 Darby, Collected Writings., Vol. 11, p. 363

125 C.I. Scofield, Scofield Bible Correspondence Course (Chicago, Moody Bible Institute), pp. 45-46.

126 Ryrie, Dispensationalism., p. 40.

127 Dwight Pentecost, Things to Come (Findlay, Ohio, Dunham, 1958), p. 529.

128 Gerstner, Wrongly., p. 66.

129 James E. Bear, 'Dispensationalism and the Covenant of Grace' Union Seminary Review 49 (1938): 307.

130 John F. Walvoord, The Rapture Question (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1979), p. 25.

131 Michael Horton, 'The Church and Israel' Modern Reformation May/June (1994), p. 1.

132 Derek White, 'Replacement Theology', Christian Friends of Israel Newsletter, June 1991. Also Stephen R. Sizer, 'Anti Missionary Law Will Ban Christian Witness in Israel' Evangelicals Now, August (1998), p. 19.

133 Beth Spring, "Some Jews and Evangelicals Edge Close on Israel Issue," Christianity Today, December 17, 1982, pp. 33-34. Cited in Gerstner, Wrongly., p. 208.

134 Ernest R. Sandeen, "Toward a Historical Interpretation of the Origins of Fundamentalism," Church History 36 (1967), 70. Cited in Gerstner, Wrongly., p. 100.

135 Bass, Backgrounds., p. 31.

136 Bass, Backgrounds., p. 151.

137 The definitive works are: Charles C. Ryrie, The Basis of the Premillennial Faith (Neptune, New Jersey, Loizeaux Brothers, 1953); Dispensationalism Today (Chicago, Moody Press, 1965)

138 C. Norman Kraus, Dispensationalism in America (Richmond, John Knox Press, 1958), p. 104.

139 Foreword to John Gerstner, Wrongly Dividing the Word of Truth (Brentwood, Tennessee, Wolgemuth & Hyatt, 1991), p. ix.

140 Gerstner, Wrongly., p. 54.

141 Charles Ryrie, Dispensationalism Today (Chicago, Moody Press, 1965); Dispensationalism (Chicago, Moody Press, 1995)

142 J. Dwight Pentecost, Things to Come (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1958)

143 John Walvoord, The Blessed Hope and the Tribulation (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1975); The Blessed Hope and the Kingdom (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1976); The Rapture Question (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1979)

144 Eric Sauer, The Dawn of World Redemption, A Survey of Historical Revelation in the Old Testament (Exeter, Paternoster Press, 1951); The Triumph of the Crucified, A Survey of Historical Revelation in the New Testament (Exeter, Paternoster Press, 1951); From Eternity to Eternity, The Purpose of God in History (Exeter, Paternoster Press, 1954).

145 The Rise of Babylon, Signs of the End Times (Wheaton, Illinois, Tyndale House, 1991); World News and Biblical Prophecy (Wheaton, Illinois, Tyndale House, 1993)

146 Hal Lindsey, The Late Great Planet Earth (London, Lakeland, 1970); The 1980's Countdown to Armageddon (New York, Bantam, 1981); Israel and the Last Days (Eugene, Oregon, Harvest House Publishers, 1983); The Road to Holocaust (New York, Bantam 1989); Planet Earth 2000 A.D. Will Mankind Survive? (Palos Verdes, California, Western Front. 1994); The Final Battle (Palos Verdes, California, Western Front. 1995)

147 Hal Lindsey, The Late Great Planet Earth (Basingstoke, Marshall, Morgan & Scott, 1971)

148 The definitive works are: Charles C. Ryrie, The Basis of the Premillennial Faith (Neptune, New Jersey, Loizeaux Brothers, 1953); Dispensationalism Today (Chicago, Moody Press, 1965)

149 C. Norman Kraus, Dispensationalism in America (Richmond, John Knox Press, 1958), p. 104.

150 Clarence E. Bass, Backgrounds to Dispensationalism (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1960); Daniel P. Fuller, Gospel and Law, Contrast or Continuum? The Hermeneutics of Dispensationalism and Covenant Theology (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1980); Craig A. Blaising and Darrell L. Bock eds. Dispensationalism, Israel and the Church (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1992); David E. Holwerda, Jesus and Israel, One Covenant or Two? (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1995)

151 Charles Ryrie, Dispensationalism (Moody Press, Chicago, 1995), p. 214; Craig A. Blaising & Darrell L. Bock, ed. Dispensationalism, Israel and the Church (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1992); Progressive Dispensationalism (Wheaton, Victor, 1993); Robert L. Saucy, The Case for Progressive Dispensationalism (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1993)

152 Blaising & Bock, Dispensationalism., p. 19.

153 Charles C. Ryrie, The Basis of the Premillennial Faith (Neptune, New Jersey, Loizeaux Brothers, 1953); Dispensationalism Today (Chicago, Moody Press, 1965); Charles Ryrie, Dispensationalism (Moody Press, Chicago, 1995)

154 Blaising & Bock, Dispensationalism., pp. 21-23.

155 Blaising & Bock, Dispensationalism., pp. 14-15.

156 Darrell Bock, cited in 'For the Love of Zion,' Christianity Today, 9 March 1992, p. 50.

157 Ryrie, Dispensationalism., pp. 171, 175, 178.

158 Ryrie, Dispensationalism., p. 199.

159 Charles Welch and Stuart Allen, Perfection or Perdition, An Exposition of the Epistle to the Hebrews (London, The Berean Publishing Trust, 1973)

160 John H. Gerstner, Wrongly Dividing the Word of Truth (Brentwood, Tennessee, Wolgemuth & Hyatt, 1991)

161 James Barr, Fundamentalism (London,SCM, 1977), p. 197.

162 Hal Lindsey, Israel and the Last Days (Eugene, Oregon, Harvest House, 1983), pp. 20-30.

163 Lisa Pevtzov, 'Apocalypse Now, Operation Conquest - The Temple Mount Yeshiva', The Jerusalem Post Magazine, 18 February 1994, p. 6.

165 Charles Colson, Kingdoms in Conflict (London, Hodder, 1988), preface.

166 Kenneth Leech, The Eye of the Storm: Spiritual resources for the pursuit of justice (London, Darton, Longman & Todd, 1992), p. 60.

167 Donald Wagner, Anxious.,

169 Stephen R. Sizer, Pilgrimages to the Un-Holy Land. Unpublished MTh dissertation, Oxford University, 1994.

170 Naim Ateek, Justice only Justice (Maryknoll, New York, Orbis, 1990); also, Naim Ateek, Marc Ellis & Rosemary Ruether, Faith and the Intifada, Palestinian Christian Voices, eds. (Maryknoll, New York, Orbis, 1992); Audeh Rantisi, Blessed are the Peacemakers (Guildford, Eagle, 1990); Elias Chacour, Blood Brothers (Eastbourne, Kingsway, 1984); and also, We Belong to the Land (San Francisco, Harper Collins, 1990)

171 George M. Marsden, Fundamentalism and American Culture, The Shaping of Twentieth Century Evangelicalism 1870-1925 (New York, Oxford University Press 1980); Evangelicalism and Modern America (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans 1984); Understanding Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1991); Martin E. Marty & R. Scott Appleby, Fundamentalism Observed (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1991)

172 The main writers to have specifically addressed Christian Fundamentalist Zionism are Donald E. Wagner, Anxious for Armageddon (Scottdale, Pennsylvania, Herald Press, 1995); Hassan Haddad and Donald Wagner, All in the Name of the Bible, Selected Essays on Israel and American Christian Fundamentalism (Brattleboro, Vermont, Amana, 1986); David A. Rausch. Zionism within early American Fundamentalism, 1878-1918; a convergence of two traditions (New York: Mellen Press, 1979); Grace Halsell, Prophecy and Politics, Militant Evangelists on the Road to Nuclear War (Westport, Connecticut, Lawrence Hill, 1986); Middle East Council of Churches, What is Western Fundamentalist Christian Zionism? rev. edn. (Limassol, Cyprus, MECC, 1988); and Naim Stifan Ateek, Justice and Only Justice, A Palestinian Theology of Liberation (Maryknoll, New York, Orbis, 1990)

173 Marsden, Understanding., p. 77.

174 Regina Sharif, Non-Jewish Zionism, its Roots in Western History (London, Zed, 1983)

176 Ray R. Sutton, 'Does Israel Have a Future?' Covenantal Renewal (December 1988), p. 3. Cited in Gary DeMar & Peter J. Leithart, The Legacy of Hatred Continues, A Response to Hal Lindsey's The Road to Holocaust (Fort Worth, Texas, Dominion Press, 1989), p. 54.

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