Lcl

Lucian Dial. meret. Lucian Nigr. LXX Petron. Satyr. Philo Abr. Philo Contempl. Philo Decal. Philo Ios. Philo Leg. Philo Mos. Philo Post. Philo Quest. Gen. Philo Spec. Philo Virt. Plato Grg. Plato Leg. Plato Prt. Plato Rep. Justin Martyr Dialogue with Trypho Juvenal Liber antiquitatum biblicarum (Pseudo-Philo) Loeb Classical Library H. G. Liddell, R. Scott, and H. S. Jones, A Greek English Lexicon, 9th ed., with revised supplement (Oxford Oxford University Press, 1996)....

Statement Of The Problem

Christianity was once nothing but a novel, deadly superstition, or so its detractors claimed. But Christians were accused of even worse from incest to orgies, nocturnal religious rites, and the ceremonial murder of an infant, the followers of Jesus of Nazareth were said to pursue a religion of lust that venerates genitalia, tricks initiates into ritualized cannibalism, and serves as a cover for the indiscriminate sating of desire.17 In one especially purple passage, the Latin Christian...

Sexual Slander and Ancient Invective

There are perhaps few characters in Roman history as devious, greedy, and full of lust as Antony and Cleopatra, if we believe the representations of them found in ancient history and biography. Following the battle of Ac-tium, Cassius Dio tells us, Cleopatra tricked Antony into taking his own life. Antony chose to enslave himself to her in life, and he remained her slave in death, demonstrating his servile nature (douloprepeia), even at the end (Cass. Dio 51.10 11, 15.2). Cleopatra, Cassius Dio...

The Unnatural Lusts Of Those Who Suppress The Truth

Following a brief greeting and thanksgiving, Paul describes the punishment that God has reserved for those who suppress the truth they have been given up in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, to the degrading of their bodies among themselves, because they exchanged the truth of God for a lie and worshipped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever (Rom 1 24). Three times Paul states that they were given up (paradidomi) by God to lust. God gave them up in the...

Illicit Sex Wicked Desire and the Demonized Heretic

Charges of demonic influence and slavery to desire, found throughout late-first- and early-second-century Christian literature, built upon the traditional association of illicit sex, idolatry, and apostasy upon well-known categories of Greek invective and upon moralistic writings that made sophrosyne and its opposites (akolastos, aselgeia, tryphe) the distinguishing characteristics of a good (agathos) or bad (kakia) person. These charges, directed at real or imagined opponents, could serve at...

Abbreviations

Abbreviations follow the recommendations of The Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd ed., edited by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth (Oxford Oxford University Press, 1999) The SBL Handbook of Style For Ancient Near Eastern, Biblical, and Early Christian Studies, edited by Patrick H. Alexander, John F. Kutsko, James D. Ernest, Shirley A. Decker-Lucke, and David L. Petersen (Massachusetts Hendrickson, 1999). When citing classical sources or standard classical reference works, I have preferred...

The Apostates

Throughout this letter, therefore, the allegedly ungodly Christians are classified among biblical antitypes whose misbehavior was motivated by misplaced desire Israel lusting after the gods, angels lusting after women, men seeking to rape angels. Jude repeatedly accused the ungodly of uncontrolled desire (epithymia). If, as Jude suggests, false teachers are a sign of the end times, then so is licentiousness among the faithful, something that cannot and must not occur. When believers with false...

True Prophet

Filled with the spirit of God powerful meek, tranquil, humble refrains from all evil and futile desire poor, does not accept payment does not answer when consulted speaks only when God wants it speaks what the Lord wishes speaks only in a gathering of just men False Christians, illicit desire, evil spirits, the devil, and the vices become inextricably linked in this passage.110 Pseudo-prophets are animated by the devil. They lead Christians to idolatry and to becoming like the gentiles. In this...

Playing The

According to many Roman sources, to be a victim of corporal punishment was to be humiliated, degraded, and, in a sense, feminized, since elite male bodies were inviolate.77 Corporal punishment was considered to be so dishonorable, so devastating to one's status and gender, that a large fine was preferred to even a slight beating. The Roman jurist Macer explained, one single stroke of the rods is more serious than condemnation to a fine.78 In theory at least, corporal punishment was reserved for...

Failed

In the famous speech already mentioned above, Aeschines accused Timarchus of prostituting himself, a crime for which Timarchus lost his Athenian citizenship. Timarchus was accused of violating the following Athenian law If a man who has prostituted himself thereafter addresses the assembly, holds an administrative office, etc., then an indictment, entitled 'indictment of hetairesis,' may be brought against him, and if he is found guilty, he may be executed.110 By law, therefore, citizen males...

Extravagant Excess

Extravagant spending on pleasure was roundly condemned by many ancient authors. For example, in his Lives, Plutarch characteristically related the relative extravagance (tpufh or nolux leia) of his subjects and judged them accordingly Crassus spent too much money on dinner parties (Niciae cum Crasso comparatio, 1.4). Lucullus was to be criticized for his luxurious style of living he wasted his money on ostentatious building projects and costly dining (Luc. 39-41) and was extravagant and like a...

The Slaves Of Sin And The Slaves Of

Following the general indictment of (gentile) humanity in the early chapters of Romans, Paul argues that the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ is the best available cure for the problem of sin (hamartia), a problem that ought no longer to trouble the saints (Rom 3 22 compare 1 16-17). What were the contents of this category, sin A primary attribute of sin as described in Romans is lack of control of one's body. In baptism, Paul asserts, the sinful body (to soma tes hamartias)...

The Letter To The Romans And The Depravity Of The World

Romans was the only letter written by Paul to a community of Jesus followers that he had not visited (Rom 1 8-12 15 22-29). He wrote to the saints in Rome in preparation for a visit, possibly to deflect criticisms of him and his views prior to his arrival, with the hope of making a favorable impression upon a church from which he sought support for his further missionary work (Rom 15 22-23).57 Romans follows some of the conventions of Greek letters the body of the letter is framed with an...

Be Subject To Ruling Authorities

Toward the end of his letter to the Romans, Paul offers a series of instructions regarding appropriate Christian behavior. Christians ought not to be conformed to this age but transformed, demonstrating the good (aga-thos), acceptable (euarestos), and perfect (teleios) will of God (Rom 12 2). This good behavior involved, for example, loving one another, serving the Lord, rejoicing in hope, practicing hospitality, living in harmony, and giving place to the wrath (dote topon te orge), probably a...

There Shall Be No Porneia Among The Saints

First Corinthians 7 addressed sexual intercourse within marriage, widows, divorce, marriage to unbelievers, virgins, the unmarried, and the importance of remaining in the state in which one was called (slave free male female married unmarried).130 An overarching theme of this complicated passage is the problem of desire It is well for a man not to touch a woman. 131 Because of porneia, each man should have his own wife and each woman her own husband. Do not refuse one another, except perhaps by...

Commonplace Virtue And Vice

Standard topics of praise (epainos, laudatio) or blame (psogos, vituperatio) were outlined in Greek rhetorical handbooks (progymnasmata) and in Latin oratorical treatises. In his handbook, Ap(h)thonius recommended that the following topics be addressed family, nation, ancestors, livelihood, customs, prudence, beauty, manliness, and bodily strength, among other features (Prog. 8).24 In his De inventione rhetorica, Cicero offered an almost identical list. (177-78).25 An anonymous third-century...

Jude And The Ungodly Christians

The discussion of the end-time false Christians begins with a programmatic statement describing the licentiousness of these, the contemporary ungodly who crept into the community of the saints Jude 4 and concludes with a saying of the apostles38 predicting the coming of these licentious end-time teachers. This final apocalyptic warning cautions the church to watch out for the mockers of the last-days who follow their own ungodly desires Jude 18 . Thus, the charge of licentiousness repeated in a...

Male Dalliance

As we have seen, adultery committed by freeborn women was viewed as a horrific sign of the depravity of the accused woman, her family, and even her city. But what about the adulteries of men In terms of Roman law, a man who had sexual intercourse with a freeborn youth, either male or female, was guilty of stuprum D 48.5.35, Modestinus .186 Intercourse with a widow or a divorc e who retained her rank as a matron was also stuprum D 48.5.9, 11 . Married citizen women were off-limits, though the...

Acknowledgments

This project began as a dissertation written at Columbia University under the direction of Vincent L. Wimbush, currently professor of religion at Claremont Graduate University. One could not have asked for a better advisor to him I remain forever in debt. Roger S. Bagnall, professor of history and classics at Columbia University, and Elizabeth A. Castelli, associate professor of religion at Barnard College, read numerous drafts, offering invaluable, extensive, and detailed advice. Their...

Let Women Be Women And Men Be

Another example of Paul's concern for the sexual propriety of the saints can be found in his instructions regarding the veiling of women during worship.142 Paul's insistence that women veil themselves no other practice can be recognized among the churches of God 1 Cor 11 16 was tied to his anxiety about the dangers of desire and his worries about unnatural sex. Men must be men and women must be women, even or especially while praying and prophesying, Paul argues. Hence, women should wear veils...

The Depravity Of The Gentiles

The portrait of man and woman offered in these sources has much in common with the sources discussed in the previous chapter. Apocryphal literature such as Tobit and Sirach recommended that Judean men control their desires, be wary of seductive women, and keep careful watch over their households. The nation of Israel could be imagined as a woman and, therefore, the heroic deeds of one Judean or Israelite woman could stand for the prestige, and even the manliness, of the entire community. Though...

Whos on Top Sex Talk Power and Resistance

For all of the titillation about thongs and cigars, the story of the impeachment and trial of William Jefferson Clinton was not so much about sex as it was about power. Peter Baker, The Breach Inside the Impeachment and Trial of When has discourse about sex ever been exclusively about sex Moreover, has there ever been a time when sex itself was not also about power Peter Baker's observation that the Clinton scandal was about power states the obvious to those who have followed the debates of...