Sb

Sammelbuch griechishen Urkunden aus gypten Suet. Claud. Suet. Dom. Suet. Iul. Suet. Ner. Suet. Otho Suet. Tit. Tac. Ann. Tac. Hist. Tatian Or. T. Benj. Tertullian Ad nat. Tertullian Apol. Tertullian Praesc. haeret. Tertullian Pud. Tertullian Virg. Theophilus Ad Auto. Thom. Cont. T. Levi T. Naph. T. Reub. Val. Max. Xen. Oec. ZPE Suetonius Divus Claudius Suetonius Domanitianus Suetonius Divus Iulius Suetonius Nero Suetonius Otho Suetonius Divus Titus Tacitus Annales Tacitus Historiae Tatian...

From Flesh To Spirit

Later in Romans, Paul furthers the theme of gentile sexual depravity, this time by arguing from the hierarchical dualisms flesh (sarx) and spirit (pneuma), a theme he broaches more directly in his letter to the Gala-tians.91 In Romans, Paul states, those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the spirit set their minds on the things of the spirit (Rom 8 5). Paul puts it this way in Galatians what the flesh desires is against...

Justin And The Pure People Of

Listing, sorting, and defining various heresies (aip a i ) for the sake of comparison or refutation was an established tradition by the time Justin made the task his own.21 Epictetus, for example, offered the following advice to his students Observe yourselves thus in your actions and you will find out to what sect hairesis of the philosophers you belong. You will find that most of you are Epicureans, some few Peripatetics, but these without any backbone____ But as for a Stoic, show me one if...

Justin And Christian Manhood

Justin's petition to the emperor represents the Christians as innocent victims of an out-of-control, unjust, and bloodthirsty regime, a project he shared with other second-century Christian apologists and with the authors of the acts of the martyrs. The choice to employ sexualized language to clinch his argument may have been entirely predictable after all, charging Christians with nearly identical bad behavior and sexual-ized invective was standard in ancient polemic yet the vivid depiction of...

Your Body Is Not Your

All things are permissible to me, but all things are not useful. All things are permissible to me, but I will not be mastered by anything. Food is for the belly and the belly for food, but God will destroy both one and the other. And the body is not for porneia but for the Lord and the Lord for the body. In this introduction to his discussion of the requisite holiness of Christian bodies, Paul quotes two sayings all things are permissible to me and food is for the belly and the belly for...

Heretical Embellishment And Genealogical Speculation

Justin considerably expanded the tale of Simon the Samaritan Irenaeus adds still more details. The author of Acts accused someone named Simon of engaging in magic prior to his acceptance of Christ. Justin accuses Simon of continuing magical practices after baptism for the express purpose of leading the faithful astray. Irenaeus spells out the type of magic the Simonians preferred.45 Justin suggests that Simon presented himself and Helena as a god and goddess. Irenaeus reports that their...

Sex Talk And Ancient Rhetorical Theory

Success as an orator, Aristotle observed, demands three capabilities the capacity to reach logical conclusions, the ability to observe closely characters and virtues, and, thirdly, an understanding of the emotions (Rh. 1356a). Logical argument is only one element of an effective speech sensitivity to the attitudes of the audience and familiarity with the virtues are equally important. This is the case for each of the three types of rhetoric that Aristotle identifies deliberative (au mPoul WiKO...

Conclusion

This survey of charges of sexual depravity demonstrates that accusations of sexual licentiousness were important to a variety of ancient discourses. These charges depended upon and reinforced cultural codes about the characteristics appropriate to the elite. The elite were here defined as those who are virtuous, and the nonelite as those deficient in virtue. The categories man and woman were constituted, in part, by these discourses. For elite men, virtue meant mastery of others (penetration,...

Model Oratory

Many of the topics and categories recommended by the later handbooks appear in Isocrates' Panegyricus.36 This was Isocrates' greatest speech,37 composed to convince the Greeks, including Sparta, to unite against the barbarians under the leadership of Athens.38 According to Isocrates, the Athenians enjoyed a noble lineage, having sprung from the very soil they currently possess. Athens is characterized by justice, having established laws and a polity (Paneg. 39). She has given philosophy to the...

Paul the Slaves of Desire and the Saints of

For this is the will of God, your sanctification, that you refrain from porneia, that each of you know to possess his own wife skeuos, lit. vessel in holiness and honor, not in the passion of lust like the gentiles who do not know God, that no one transgress and defraud his brother in the matter, because the Lord is an avenger concerning all these matters, just as we told you before, and we solemnly warned you. For God did not call us for impurity, but in holiness. In his letter to the...

Deviance Deployed

What, then, were the common charges of sexual weakness How did they participate in the maintenance and policing of status What beliefs about gender and sexuality are assumed To what ends were these charges em ployed As was suggested by the above reading of ancient rhetorical theory, charges of sexual vice tended to appear in lists rather than separately. If a man was condemned for his extravagance, he was also likely to be condemned for adultery, effeminacy, corruption of boys, or some other...

Sex And Christian Origins

Placing their rivals, real or imaginary, within diverse schools with multiple founders and one inspiration (Satan), Justin and Irenaeus developed a classificatory scheme that produced Christianity as a distinct, legitimate, and restricted genos. These legitimate Christians were not Jews therefore Israel's misdeeds did not apply (Justin) and heretics could be condemned for behaving like Jews (Irenaeus). Biblical language regarding seed, discussed in chapter 2, had been transformed whereas...

Notes

Peter Baker, The Breach Inside the Impeachment and Trial of William Jefferson Clinton (New York Berkley, 2000), 18. Though scandal mongering regarding presidential peccadilloes was on the wane prior to the Clinton impeachment trial, the assumption that respectable sexual behavior ought be a characteristic of the president and other political leaders continued, the same assumption that fueled accusations about illegitimate children, adulterous liaisons, and seductions of vulnerable young women...

Paul And The Slaves Of Lust

According to Paul, transformation in Christ resulted in a decisive break with the depravity of the world. Gentiles were enslaved to lust Christ-followers became slaves of God (Rom 6 13-23). Gentiles characteristically commit porneia (1 Thess 4 5 Gal 5 16-26 Rom 1 18-32) Christ followers glorify God in their bodies (1 Cor 6 15-20). Gentiles join their bodies to prostitutes (1 Cor 6 15) Christ followers exercise self-mastery, or they marry and thereby channel their passions appropriately (1 Cor 7...

Sexual Slander And Christian Identity

From biblical tradition, to Greek invective, to early Christian polemics, the opponents be they gentiles or slaves or barbarians or heretics were universally said to devote themselves to sexual excess. Though there may have been licentious gentiles, slaves, rulers, philosophers, barbarians, heretics, or Christians, the sources I have been exploring will not help us find them. Instead, these sources indicate a widespread attempt to employ moralizing claims regarding sexual behavior and gender...

Wild Wo

Like slaves, Aristotle argued, women are deficient by nature. Freeborn women possess virtues appropriate to women, but their gender incapacitates them (Arist. Pol. i26oa4). Many ancient authors accepted and promoted this view, asserting that women need special protection and surveil-lance.128 A few second-century moralists did argue that women should be educated in the virtues, especially the virtue most appropriate to women, sophrosyne. It is necessary that a woman be chaste and...

The False Teachers of the End Time

In the Book of Revelation, Rome is represented as a great whore with whom the kings of the earth have fornicated(Rev 17 2).1 At the end of times, the author of Revelation promised, Rome and the kings who copulated with her, together with the merchants who have grown rich from her luxury, will be destroyed. The kings and merchants will weep and mourn as they watch her and all her great wealth laid to waste, burned and burning for eternity following the true and just judgment of God (Rev 18 1 19...

Lcl

Lucian Dial. meret. Lucian Nigr. LXX Petron. Satyr. Philo Abr. Philo Contempl. Philo Decal. Philo Ios. Philo Leg. Philo Mos. Philo Post. Philo Quest. Gen. Philo Spec. Philo Virt. Plato Grg. Plato Leg. Plato Prt. Plato Rep. Justin Martyr Dialogue with Trypho Juvenal Liber antiquitatum biblicarum (Pseudo-Philo) Loeb Classical Library H. G. Liddell, R. Scott, and H. S. Jones, A Greek English Lexicon, 9th ed., with revised supplement (Oxford Oxford University Press, 1996)....

Statement Of The Problem

Christianity was once nothing but a novel, deadly superstition, or so its detractors claimed. But Christians were accused of even worse from incest to orgies, nocturnal religious rites, and the ceremonial murder of an infant, the followers of Jesus of Nazareth were said to pursue a religion of lust that venerates genitalia, tricks initiates into ritualized cannibalism, and serves as a cover for the indiscriminate sating of desire.17 In one especially purple passage, the Latin Christian...

Sexual Slander and Ancient Invective

There are perhaps few characters in Roman history as devious, greedy, and full of lust as Antony and Cleopatra, if we believe the representations of them found in ancient history and biography. Following the battle of Ac-tium, Cassius Dio tells us, Cleopatra tricked Antony into taking his own life. Antony chose to enslave himself to her in life, and he remained her slave in death, demonstrating his servile nature (douloprepeia), even at the end (Cass. Dio 51.10 11, 15.2). Cleopatra, Cassius Dio...

The Unnatural Lusts Of Those Who Suppress The Truth

Following a brief greeting and thanksgiving, Paul describes the punishment that God has reserved for those who suppress the truth they have been given up in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, to the degrading of their bodies among themselves, because they exchanged the truth of God for a lie and worshipped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever (Rom 1 24). Three times Paul states that they were given up (paradidomi) by God to lust. God gave them up in the...

Illicit Sex Wicked Desire and the Demonized Heretic

Charges of demonic influence and slavery to desire, found throughout late-first- and early-second-century Christian literature, built upon the traditional association of illicit sex, idolatry, and apostasy upon well-known categories of Greek invective and upon moralistic writings that made sophrosyne and its opposites (akolastos, aselgeia, tryphe) the distinguishing characteristics of a good (agathos) or bad (kakia) person. These charges, directed at real or imagined opponents, could serve at...

Abbreviations

Abbreviations follow the recommendations of The Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd ed., edited by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth (Oxford Oxford University Press, 1999) The SBL Handbook of Style For Ancient Near Eastern, Biblical, and Early Christian Studies, edited by Patrick H. Alexander, John F. Kutsko, James D. Ernest, Shirley A. Decker-Lucke, and David L. Petersen (Massachusetts Hendrickson, 1999). When citing classical sources or standard classical reference works, I have preferred...

The Apostates

Throughout this letter, therefore, the allegedly ungodly Christians are classified among biblical antitypes whose misbehavior was motivated by misplaced desire Israel lusting after the gods, angels lusting after women, men seeking to rape angels. Jude repeatedly accused the ungodly of uncontrolled desire (epithymia). If, as Jude suggests, false teachers are a sign of the end times, then so is licentiousness among the faithful, something that cannot and must not occur. When believers with false...

True Prophet

Filled with the spirit of God powerful meek, tranquil, humble refrains from all evil and futile desire poor, does not accept payment does not answer when consulted speaks only when God wants it speaks what the Lord wishes speaks only in a gathering of just men False Christians, illicit desire, evil spirits, the devil, and the vices become inextricably linked in this passage.110 Pseudo-prophets are animated by the devil. They lead Christians to idolatry and to becoming like the gentiles. In this...

Playing The

According to many Roman sources, to be a victim of corporal punishment was to be humiliated, degraded, and, in a sense, feminized, since elite male bodies were inviolate.77 Corporal punishment was considered to be so dishonorable, so devastating to one's status and gender, that a large fine was preferred to even a slight beating. The Roman jurist Macer explained, one single stroke of the rods is more serious than condemnation to a fine.78 In theory at least, corporal punishment was reserved for...

Failed

In the famous speech already mentioned above, Aeschines accused Timarchus of prostituting himself, a crime for which Timarchus lost his Athenian citizenship. Timarchus was accused of violating the following Athenian law If a man who has prostituted himself thereafter addresses the assembly, holds an administrative office, etc., then an indictment, entitled 'indictment of hetairesis,' may be brought against him, and if he is found guilty, he may be executed.110 By law, therefore, citizen males...

Extravagant Excess

Extravagant spending on pleasure was roundly condemned by many ancient authors. For example, in his Lives, Plutarch characteristically related the relative extravagance (tpufh or nolux leia) of his subjects and judged them accordingly Crassus spent too much money on dinner parties (Niciae cum Crasso comparatio, 1.4). Lucullus was to be criticized for his luxurious style of living he wasted his money on ostentatious building projects and costly dining (Luc. 39-41) and was extravagant and like a...

The Slaves Of Sin And The Slaves Of

Following the general indictment of (gentile) humanity in the early chapters of Romans, Paul argues that the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ is the best available cure for the problem of sin (hamartia), a problem that ought no longer to trouble the saints (Rom 3 22 compare 1 16-17). What were the contents of this category, sin A primary attribute of sin as described in Romans is lack of control of one's body. In baptism, Paul asserts, the sinful body (to soma tes hamartias)...

The Letter To The Romans And The Depravity Of The World

Romans was the only letter written by Paul to a community of Jesus followers that he had not visited (Rom 1 8-12 15 22-29). He wrote to the saints in Rome in preparation for a visit, possibly to deflect criticisms of him and his views prior to his arrival, with the hope of making a favorable impression upon a church from which he sought support for his further missionary work (Rom 15 22-23).57 Romans follows some of the conventions of Greek letters the body of the letter is framed with an...

Be Subject To Ruling Authorities

Toward the end of his letter to the Romans, Paul offers a series of instructions regarding appropriate Christian behavior. Christians ought not to be conformed to this age but transformed, demonstrating the good (aga-thos), acceptable (euarestos), and perfect (teleios) will of God (Rom 12 2). This good behavior involved, for example, loving one another, serving the Lord, rejoicing in hope, practicing hospitality, living in harmony, and giving place to the wrath (dote topon te orge), probably a...

There Shall Be No Porneia Among The Saints

First Corinthians 7 addressed sexual intercourse within marriage, widows, divorce, marriage to unbelievers, virgins, the unmarried, and the importance of remaining in the state in which one was called (slave free male female married unmarried).130 An overarching theme of this complicated passage is the problem of desire It is well for a man not to touch a woman. 131 Because of porneia, each man should have his own wife and each woman her own husband. Do not refuse one another, except perhaps by...

Commonplace Virtue And Vice

Standard topics of praise (epainos, laudatio) or blame (psogos, vituperatio) were outlined in Greek rhetorical handbooks (progymnasmata) and in Latin oratorical treatises. In his handbook, Ap(h)thonius recommended that the following topics be addressed family, nation, ancestors, livelihood, customs, prudence, beauty, manliness, and bodily strength, among other features (Prog. 8).24 In his De inventione rhetorica, Cicero offered an almost identical list. (177-78).25 An anonymous third-century...

Jude And The Ungodly Christians

The discussion of the end-time false Christians begins with a programmatic statement describing the licentiousness of these, the contemporary ungodly who crept into the community of the saints Jude 4 and concludes with a saying of the apostles38 predicting the coming of these licentious end-time teachers. This final apocalyptic warning cautions the church to watch out for the mockers of the last-days who follow their own ungodly desires Jude 18 . Thus, the charge of licentiousness repeated in a...

Male Dalliance

As we have seen, adultery committed by freeborn women was viewed as a horrific sign of the depravity of the accused woman, her family, and even her city. But what about the adulteries of men In terms of Roman law, a man who had sexual intercourse with a freeborn youth, either male or female, was guilty of stuprum D 48.5.35, Modestinus .186 Intercourse with a widow or a divorc e who retained her rank as a matron was also stuprum D 48.5.9, 11 . Married citizen women were off-limits, though the...

Averyl Vichniac

This project began as a dissertation written at Columbia University under the direction of Vincent L. Wimbush, currently professor of religion at Claremont Graduate University. One could not have asked for a better advisor to him I remain forever in debt. Roger S. Bagnall, professor of history and classics at Columbia University, and Elizabeth A. Castelli, associate professor of religion at Barnard College, read numerous drafts, offering invaluable, extensive, and detailed advice. Their...

Let Women Be Women And Men Be

Another example of Paul's concern for the sexual propriety of the saints can be found in his instructions regarding the veiling of women during worship.142 Paul's insistence that women veil themselves no other practice can be recognized among the churches of God 1 Cor 11 16 was tied to his anxiety about the dangers of desire and his worries about unnatural sex. Men must be men and women must be women, even or especially while praying and prophesying, Paul argues. Hence, women should wear veils...

The Depravity Of The Gentiles

The portrait of man and woman offered in these sources has much in common with the sources discussed in the previous chapter. Apocryphal literature such as Tobit and Sirach recommended that Judean men control their desires, be wary of seductive women, and keep careful watch over their households. The nation of Israel could be imagined as a woman and, therefore, the heroic deeds of one Judean or Israelite woman could stand for the prestige, and even the manliness, of the entire community. Though...

Whos on Top Sex Talk Power and Resistance

For all of the titillation about thongs and cigars, the story of the impeachment and trial of William Jefferson Clinton was not so much about sex as it was about power. Peter Baker, The Breach Inside the Impeachment and Trial of When has discourse about sex ever been exclusively about sex Moreover, has there ever been a time when sex itself was not also about power Peter Baker's observation that the Clinton scandal was about power states the obvious to those who have followed the debates of...